Effect of addition of Tunisian Zizyphus lotus L. Fruits on nutritional and sensory qualities of cookies

Main Article Content

Youkabed Zarroug
Jazia Sriti
Dorra Sfayhi
Bechir Slimi
Wafa Allouch
Kamel Zayani
Khaoula Hammami
Maryam Sowalhia
Mohamed Kharrat


antioxidants, cookies, phytochemical compounds, sensory characteristics, texture, Zizyphus lotus


Zizyphus lotus, which belongs to Rhamnaceae family, has been widely used to formulate many healthy food products. The aim of this work was to formulate new functional cookies enriched with different amounts of Zizyphus lotus powder (ZLP; 15%, 30%, 45% and 100%). The chemical properties of ZLP were also determined. The formulated cookies were evaluated for their physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics. Results revealed that ZLP contained various bioactive components, fatty acids, and antioxidants. ZLP-added cookies demonstrated higher phytochemical and antioxidant activities than control cookies prepared without ZLP. The activity of ZLP cookies was enhanced with increase of ZLP level. Hardness and fracturability (brittleness) of cookies increased with increasing amount of ZLP. Results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds in formulated cookies. All cookie samples were generally accepted, but the panelists indicated a higher preference for cookies containing 15% ZLP.

Abstract 787 | PDF Downloads 698 HTML Downloads 683 XML Downloads 147


Abdeddaim M., Lombarkia O., Bacha A., Fahloul D., Abdeddaim D., Farhat R., Saadoudi M., Noui Y and Lekbir A. 2014. Biochemical characterization and nutritional properties of Zizyphus lotus L. fruits in Aures region, northeastern of Algeria. Ann Food Sci Technol. 15(1):75–81.

Aboshora W., Yu J., Omar K.A., Li Y., Hassanin H.A.M., Navicha W.B. and Zhang L. 2019. Preparation of Doum fruit (Hyphaene thebaica) dietary fiber supplemented biscuits: influence on dough characteristics, biscuits quality, nutritional profile and antioxidant properties. J Food Sci Technol. 56:1328–1336. 10.1007/s13197-019-03605-z

Adebiyi J.A., Obadina A.O., Mulaba-Bafubiandi A.F., Adebo O.A. and Kayitesi E. 2016. Effect of fermentation and malting on the microstructure and selected physicochemical properties of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) flour and biscuit. J Cereal Sci. 70:132–139. 10.1016/j.jcs.2016.05.026

Ajila C.M., Leelavathi K. and Prasada Rao U.J.S. 2008. Improvement of dietary fiber content and antioxidant properties in soft dough biscuits with the incorporation of mango peel powder. J Cereal Sci. 48:319−326. 10.1016/j.jcs.2007.10.001

Anderson R.A., Conway H.F. and Peplinski A.J. 1970. Gelatinization of corn grits by roll cooking, extrusion cooking and steaming. Starch-Starke. 22(4):2–7. 10.1002/star.19700220408

Antoniewska A., Rutkowska J. and Pineda M.M. 2019. Antioxidative, sensory and volatile profiles of cookies enriched with freeze-dried Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits. Food Chem. 286:376–387. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.02.029

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 2005. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 18th ed. Washington DC: AOAC.

Bakhtaoui F.Z., Lakmichi H., Megraud F., Chait A. and Gadhi C.E.A. 2014. Gastro-protective, anti-Helicobacter pylori and antioxidant properties of Moroccan Zizyphus lotus L. J Appl Pharm Sci. 4(10):81–87. 10.7324/JAPS.2014.401015

Bhat N.A., Wani I.A. and Hamdani A.M. 2020. Tomato powder and crude lycopene as a source of natural antioxidants in whole wheat flour cookies. Heliyon. 6(1):3042. 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e03042

Blanco Canalis M.S., Baroni M.V., León A.E. and Ribotta P.D. 2020. Effect of peach puree incorportion on cookie quality and on simulated digestion of polyphenols and antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 333:127464. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127464

Blanco Canalis M.S., León A.E. and Ribotta P.D. 2018. Incorporation of dietary fiber on the cookie dough. Effects on thermal properties and water availability. Food Chem. 7:146. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.146

Chieh C. 2006. Water. In: Y.H. Hui (Ed.), Bakery Products Science and Technology (pp. 211–232). Blackwell Oxford, UK. 10.1002/9780470277553.ch11

Choi S.Y., Yoon B.R. and Kim S.S. 2016. Characteristics and nutritional compositions of two jujube varieties cultivated in Korea. Korean J Food Preser. 23:127–130. 10.11002/kjfp.2016.23.1.127

Chouaibi M., Mahfoudhi N., Rezig L., Donsì F., Ferrari G. and Hamdi S. 2011. Nutritional composition of Zizyphus lotus L. seeds. J Sci Food Agric. 92(6):1171–1177. 10.1002/jsfa.4659

Das Chagas E.G.L., Vanin F.M., dos Santos Garcia V.A., Yoshida C.M.P and de Carvalho R.A. 2020. Enrichment of antioxidants compounds in cookies produced with camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) coproduct powders. LWT–Food Sci Technol. 137:110472. 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110472

Da Silva F.L., Escribano-Bailón M.T., Alonso J.J.P., Rivas-Gonzalo J.C. and Santos-Buelga C. 2007. Anthocyanin pigments in strawberry. LWT–Food Sci Technol. 40:374–382. 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.09.018

Dewanto V., Wu X., Adom K.K and Liu R.H. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 50:3010–3014. 10.1021/jf0115589

Elfalleh W., Tlili N., Nasri N., Yahia Y., Hannachi H., Chaira N., Ying M and Ferchichi A. 2011. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits. J Food Sci. 76:707–713. 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02179.x

El Maaiden E., El Kharrassi Y., Lamaoui M., Allai L., Essamadi A.K., Nasser B., and Moustaid K. 2020. Variation in minerals, polyphenolics and antioxidant activity of pulp, seed and almond of different Zizyphus species grown in Morocco. Brazilian J Food Technol. 23:2019206. 10.1590/1981-6723.20619

Ferreira I.C.F.R., Baptista P., Vilas-Boas M. and Barros L. 2007. Free-radical scavenging capacity and reducing power of wild edible mushrooms from northeast Portugal: individual cap and stipe activity. Food Chem. 100(4):1511–1516. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.11.043

Galla N.R., Pamidighantam P.R., Karakala B., Gurusiddaiah M.R and Akula S. 2017. Nutritional, textural and sensory quality of biscuits supplemented with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Int J Gastron Food Sci. 7:20–26. 10.1016/j.ijgfs.2016.12.003

Ghalem M., Merghache S. and Belarbi M. 2014. Study on the antioxidant activities of root extracts of Zizyphus lotus from the western region of Algeria. Pharmacog J. 6:32–42. 10.5530/pj.2014.4.5

Ghazghazi H., Aouadhi C., Riahi L., Maaroufi A. and Hasnaoui B. 2014. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Zizyphus lotus L.(Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts. Natural Prod Res. 28:1106–1110. 10.1080/14786419.2014.913244

Ghedira K. 2013. Zizyphus lotus (L.) Desf.(R hamnaceae): jujubier sauvage. Phytothérapie. 11(3):149–153. 10.1007/s10298-013-0776-8

Hatano T., Kagawa H., Yasahara H.T. and Okuda T. 1988. The effect of extracts on DPPH radical was estimated according to the methanol. Food Chem. 78:347–354.

Hussai, S., Anjum F., Butt M., Khan M. and Asghar A. 2006. Physical and sensory attributes of flaxseed flour supplemented cookies. Turkish J Biol. 30:87–92.

Ismail T., Akhtar S., Riaz M. and Ismail A. 2014. Effect of pomegranate peel supplementation on nutritional, organoleptic and stability properties of cookies. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 65(6):661–666. 10.3109/09637486.2014.908170

Kaur P., Sharma P., Kumar V., Panghal A., Kaur J. and Gat Y. 2017. Effect of addition of flaxseed flour on phytochemical, physicochemical, nutritional, and textural properties of cookies. J Saudi Soc Agric Sci. 12:4.

Kaur M. and Singh N. 2005. Studies on functional, thermal and pasting properties of flours from different chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars. Food Chem. 91:403–411. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.06.015

Koley T.K., Kaur C., Nagal S., Walia S., Jaggi S. and Sarika. 2016. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content in genotypes of Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.). Arab J Chem. 9:1044–1052. 10.1016/j.arabjc.2011.11.005

Krystyjan M., Gumul D., Ziobro R. and Korus A. 2015. The fortification of biscuits with bee pollen and its effect on physicochemical and antioxidant properties in biscuits. LWT–Food Sci Technol. 63(1):640–646. 10.1016/j.lwt.2015.03.075

Ksouri R., Megdiche W., Falleh H., Trabelsi N., Boulaaba M., Smaoui A. and Abdelly C. 2008. Influence of biological, environmental and technical factors on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Tunisian halophytes. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 331:865–873. 10.1016/j.crvi.2008.07.024

Le-Floc’h E. 1983. Contribution à une étude ethnobotanique de la flore de la Tunisie: programme flore et végétation Tunisienne (pp. 150–151). Publications Scientifiques Tunisiennes, Tunis.

Li J.W., Fan L.P., Ding S.D. and Ding X.L. 2007. Nutritional composition of five cultivars of Chinese jujube. Food Chem. 103:454–460. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.016

Ludwig D.S., Hu F.B., Tappy L. and Brand-Miller J. 2018. Dietary carbohydrates: role of quality and quantity in chronic disease. BMJ (Sci Polit Nutr). 361:K2340. 10.1136/bmj.k2340

Marmouzi I., Kharbach M., El Jemli M., Bouyahya A., Cherrah Y., Bouklouze A. and Faouzi M.E.A. 2019. Antidiabetic, dermatoprotective, antioxidant and chemical functionalities in Zizyphus lotus leaves and fruits. Indust Crops Prod. 132:134–139. 10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.02.007

Martínez R., Torres P., Meneses M.A., Figueroa J.G., Pérez-Álvarez J.A. and Viuda-Martos M. 2012. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate. Food Chem. 135(3):1520–1526. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.05.057

Masmoudi M., Yaich H., Borchani M., Mbarki R. and Attia H. 2021. Chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of biscuits enriched with jujube (Zizyphus lotus L.) flour and fiber concentrate. J Food Sci Technol. 58(4):1411–1419. 10.1007/s13197-020-04652-7

Mau J.L., Chao G.R and Wu K.T. 2001. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from several ear mushrooms. J Food Agric Food Chem. 49:5461–5467. 10.1021/jf010637h

Milićević N., Sakač M., Hadnađev M., Škrobot D., Šarić B., Hadnađev T.D., Jovanov P. and Pezo L. 2020. Physico-chemical properties of low-fat cookies containing wheat and oat bran gels as fat replacers. J Cereal Sci. 95:103056. 10.1016/j.jcs.2020.103056

Mkadmini H.K., Jdey A., Abdelly C., Majdoub H. and Ksouri R. 2015. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Tunisian Zizyphus lotus fruits using response surface methodology. Food Chem. 184:80–89. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.047

Molnar D., Brnčić S.R., Vujić L., Gyimes E. and Krisch J. 2015. Characterization of biscuits enriched with black currant and jostaberry powder. Croatian J Food Technol Biotechnol Nutr.10(1–2):31–36.

Naknaen P., Itthisoponkul T., Sondee A. and Angsombat N. 2016. Utilization of watermelon rind waste as a potential source of dietary fiber to improve health promoting properties and reduce glycemic index for cookie making. Food Sci Biotechnol. 25(2):415–424. 10.1007/s10068-016-0057-z

Okala A., Ladan M.J., Wasagu R.S.U and Shehu K. 2014. Phytochemical studies and in vitro antioxidant properties of Zizyphus mauritiana fruit extract. Int J Pharmacog Phytochem Res. 6(4):885–888.

Pareyt B. and Delcour J.A. 2008. The role of wheat flour constituents, sugar and fat in low moisture cereal based products: a review on sugar-snap cookies. Crit. Rev. Food Sci Nutr. 48:824–39. 10.1080/10408390701719223

Pasqualone A., Bianco A.M., Paradiso V.M., Summo C., Gambacorta G. and Caponio F. 2014. Physico-chemical, sensory and volatile profiles of biscuits enriched with grape marc extract. Food Res Int. 65:385–393. 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.07.014

Patro B.S., Bauri A.K., Mishra S and Chattopadhyay S. 2005. Antioxidant activity of Myristica malabarica extracts and their constituents. J Agric Food Chem. 53:6912–6918. 10.1021/jf050861x

Richardson J.E., Chatrou L.W., Mols J.B., Erkens R.H.J. and Pirie M.D. 2004. Historical biogeography of two cosmopolitan families of flowering plants: Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Philos Trans Royal Soc B. 359:1495–1508. 10.1098/rstb.2004.1537

Rosell C.M., Cortez G. and Repo-Carrasco R. 2009. Breadmaking use of andean crops quinoa, kañiwa, kiwicha, and tarwi. Cereal Chem. 84(4):386–392. 10.1094/CCHEM-86-4-0386

Ryan E., Galvin K., O’Connor T.P., Maguire A.R. and O’Brien N.M. 2007. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 62(3):85–91. 10.1007/s11130-007-0046-8

Saadoudi M., Hambaba L., Abdeddaim M., Lekbir A., Bacha A., Boudraa S. and Zidani S. 2017. Nuritional composition, physical properties and sensory evaluation of biscuit produced from jujubes (fruits of zizyphus lotus L.). Ann Food Sci Technol. 18(3):395–401.

Sangnark A. and Noomhorm A. 2004. Chemical, physical and baking properties of dietary fiber prepared from rice straw. Food Res Int. 37:66–74. 10.1016/j.foodres.2003.09.007

Šaponjac V.T., Cetkovic G., Canadanovic-Brunet J., Pajin B., Djilas S., Petrovic J., Loncarevic I., Stajcic S. and Vulic J. 2016. Sour cherry pomace extract encapsulated in whey and soy proteins: incorporation in cookies. Food Chem. 207:27–33. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.03.082

Sun B., Ricardo-da-Silva J.M. and Spranger I. 1998. Critical factors of vanillin assay for catechins and proanthocyanidins. J Agric Food Chem. 46:4267–4274. 10.1021/jf980366j

Takeungwongtrakul S. and Benjakul S. 2017. Biscuits fortified with micro-encapsulated shrimp oil: characteristics and storage stability. J Food Sci Technol. 54(5):1126–1136. 10.1007/s13197-017-2545-4

Toledo N.M.V. de, Nunes L.P., Silva P.P.M. Da Spoto M.H.F. and Canniatti-Brazaca S.G. 2017. Influence of pineapple, apple and melon by-products on cookies: physicochemical and sensory aspects. Int J Food Sci Technol. 52(5):1185–1192. 10.1111/ijfs.13383

Tyagi P., Chauhan A.K and Aparna. 2020. Optimization and characterization of functional cookies with addition of Tinospora cordifolia as a source of bioactive phenolic antioxidants. LWT–Food Sci Technol. 130:109639. 10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109639

Varastegani B., Zzaman W. and Yang T.A. 2015. Investigation on physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies substituted with papaya pulp flour. J Food Quality. 38(3):175–183. 10.1111/jfq.12129

Wojdyło A., Carbonell-Barrachina Á.A., Legua P. and Hernández F. 2016. Phenolic composition, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of Spanish jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) fruits. Food Chem. 201:307–314. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.090

Yamada H., Nagai T., Cyong J.C., Otsuka Y., Tomoda M. and Shimizu N. 1985. Relationship between chemical structure and anti-complementary activity of plant polysaccharides. Carbohydr Res. 144:101–111. 10.1016/0008-6215(85)85011-4

Zarroug Y., Mejri J., Dhawefi N., Ben. Sik. Ali S., EL Felah M. and Hassouna M. 2015. Comparison of chemical composition of two durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ oils. Ekin J Crop Breed Genet. 1(1):69–73.