Italian Journal of Food Science <p>The <strong>Italian</strong> <strong>Journal</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Food</strong> <strong>Science</strong> is an international journal publishing original, basic, and applied papers, reviews, short communications, surveys, and opinions on food science and technology.</p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> Codon Publications en-US Italian Journal of Food Science 1120-1770 <h4>Copyright Agreement with Authors</h4> <p>Before publication, after the acceptance of the manuscript, Authors have to sign a Publication Agreement with "Italian Journal of Food Science", granting and assigning to&nbsp;"Italian Journal of Food Science"&nbsp;the perpetual right to distribute the work free of charge by any means and in any parts of the world, including the communication to the public through the journal website.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h4>License for Published Contents</h4> <p><img src="/ojs/public/site/images/albertochied/88x31.png" alt=""></p> <p></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> Drying characteristics and some quality parameters of whole jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.) during hot air drying <p>Drying kinetics, water-soluble vitamins, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AC) of the jujube fruits dried at 50, 60, and 70°C, and degradation kinetics of the quality parameters were investigated. The models fitted to drying were determined as Page at 50 and 70°C, Parabolic at 60°C. Increment in the drying temperature increased the drying rate and decreased the drying time. Water-soluble vitamins, TPC, and AC were significantly reduced by the drying process. Degradation of water-soluble vitamins increased with the drying temperature, although TPC and AC were not significantly affected by temperature. Thermal degradations of quality parameters were fitted to first-order kinetic.</p> Begüm Tepe Raci Ekinci Copyright (c) 2021 Begüm Tepe, Raci Ekinci 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 33 1 1 15 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1947 Drying characteristics and degradation kinetics in some parameters of goji berry (Lycium Barbarum L.) fruit during hot air drying <p>Drying kinetics, color properties, water-soluble vitamins, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and thermal degradation kinetics of bioactive compounds in goji berries were investigated. Drying experiments were conducted at 50°C, 60°C, and 70°C. Page model was determined as the best model to predict experimental moisture ratio for all temperatures. Increment in drying temperature increased effective moisture diffusivity and drying rate values. Vitamins C and B6, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were significantly reduced by drying. Thermal degradation of vitamins C and B6, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were found to fit the first order kinetic model.</p> Heysem Suat Batu Çetin Kadakal Copyright (c) 2021 Heysem Suat Batu, Çetin Kadakal 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 33 1 16 28 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1949 Does iron-fortified chewing gum influence the biochemical profile of school-going children (6–10 yrs.)? <p>Iron deficiency has become a common nutritional problem of developing countries, especially in children. This study approached to tackle the issue of iron deficiency by inexpensive fortified food such as chewing gums, which is commonly consumed by children. In this study, iron-fortified chewing gums were prepared by adding ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and sodium iron EDTA (NaFeEDTA) 30 mg/100 g. An efficacy trial was conducted to determine the impact of iron-fortified chewing gums on the blood profile and iron status of school-going children (n = 300). Results showed maximum increase in blood profile and iron status that is, serum ferritin (10.43%), hemoglobin (3.22%), hematocrit (3.42%), red blood cells (3.05%), mean cell volume (1.55%), mean cell hemoglobin (5.43%), total white blood cells count (9.09%), and platelets count (4.40%) as compared with control whereas decrease in mean cell hemoglobin concentration (1.90%) and neutrophils (3.33%) was also observed. The study concluded that FeSO4 and NaFeEDTA (1:1) fortification of chewing gums is an appropriate approach for mitigating iron deficiency among the target population.</p> Muhammad Azeem Mian Kamran Sharif Fais-Ul-Hassan Shah Maratab Ali Muhammad Amer Nazir Muhammad Rizwan Syed Abdul Wadood Rebia Ejaz Copyright (c) 2021 Muhammad Azeem, Mian Kamran Sharif, Fais-Ul-Hassan Shah, Maratab Ali, Muhammad Amer Nazir, Muhammad Rizwan, Syed Abdul Wadood, Rebia Ejaz 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 33 1 29 38 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1804 The antimicrobial activity of two phenolic acids against foodborne Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes and their effectiveness in a meat system <p>Ready-to-eat meats are susceptible to pathogenic contamination during their production, distribution, and sale. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of two phenolic acids (caffeic and ferulic acids) against foodborne pathogens in cold-cut meat at low-temperature conditions. The individual and combined antibacterial activities of caffeic and ferulic acids against <em>Escherichia coli</em> O157:H7 ATCC 43888 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were determined by diffusion disk assay in broth media and cold-cut meat. Broth media and meat samples already inoculated with <em>E. coli</em> and <em>L. monocytogenes</em> were treated with caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and their combination at the concentrations of 150 ppm and 200 ppm and stored at 4°C. Microbial growths were monitored at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Caffeic acid at 200 ppm exhibited a zone of inhibition of 12.33 mm on E. coli, and ferulic acid revealed a zone of inhibition of 11.00 mm on <em>L. monocytogenes</em>. The combination of caffeic ferulic acid at a concentration of 200 ppm was most effective against <em>E. coli</em>, demonstrating a synergistic effect over 72 h at 4°C in both broth media and meat. For meat samples, the combination of caffeic acid and ferulic acid exhibited a log reduction of 3.63 CFU/g at 150 ppm and 2.51 CFU/g at 200 ppm against <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7 at the end of cold storage. Caffeic acid alone exhibited an overall log reduction of 2.48 CFU/g at 150 ppm and 2.75 CFU/g at 200 ppm against L. mono-cytogenes. These results indicate the ability of caffeic and ferulic acids, individually and in combination, to reduce pathogenic contamination and improve safety of cold-cut meats.</p> Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi Austin Govender Omotola Folake Olagunju Ajibola Bamikole Oyedeji Copyright (c) 2021 Oluwatosin Ademola Ijabadeniyi, Austin Govender, Omotola Folake Olagunju, Ajibola Bamikole Oyedeji 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 33 1 39 45 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1933 Chemical characterization of ‘Pecorino Di Farindola’ cheese during ripening <p>This study evaluated the nutritional and sensorial characteristics of Pecorino di Farindola cheese at different commercial ripening stages. Moreover, in order to assess effectively the peculiar features of this product, the evolution of proteolysis and lipolysis, together with that of free amino acids (FAAs), was studied throughout ripening. A marked proteolysis of Pecorino di Farindola was found. At the end of ripening, FAAs with the highest content were glutamic acid, valine, leucine and lysine. Long-ripened cheeses had a light spicy feature that distinguishes them from other Italian Pecorino cheeses.</p> Serena Niro Alessandra Fratianni Annacristina D'Agostino Ivan Notardonato Gianfranco Panfili Copyright (c) 2021 Serena Niro, Alessandra Fratianni, Annacristina D'Agostino, Ivan Notardonato, Gianfranco Panfili 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 33 1 46 51 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1964 Sensory properties of iodine-biofortified potatoes <p>The present study assessed the sensory impact of potatoes biofortification with iodine and the stability of iodine during six months of storage. Four biofortified cultivars (<em>Cupido, Marabel, Orchestra and Universa</em>) and their controls (non-biofortified) were evaluated. The present study assessed the sensory impact of potatoes biofortification with iodine and the stability of iodine during six months of storage. Four biofortified cultivars (Cupido, Marabel, Orchestra and Universa) and their controls (non-biofortified) were evaluated. Descriptive analysis was applied with a panel to describe the sensory properties, and triangle tests were applied with consumers to evaluate perceivable differences between controls and respective biofortified samples at the end of shelf life. Iodine content was quantified on raw potatoes for three periods of storage. Descriptive analysis showed some differences between controls and iodine-biofortified samples, especially in texture (hardness). However, consumers did not significantly discriminate fortified from unfortified samples. Iodine was stable during storage in all varieties. <em>Orchestra</em> cultivar showed the highest iodine content, while <em>Universa </em>the lowest.</p> Maria Piochi Emma Chiavaro Angelo Cichelli Luisa Torri Lorenzo Cerretani Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Piochi 2021-01-02 2021-01-02 33 1 52 60 10.14674/ijfs.v33i1.1951 The addition of Capsicum baccatum to Calabrian monovarietal extra virgin olive oils leads to flavoured olive oils with enhanced oxidative stability <p>This study aimed to evaluate the influence of Capsicum baccatum L. Aji Angelo and Bishop crown cultivars to the quality parameters of flavoured olive oils (FOOs) obtained by the addition of both fresh and dried pepper powders (1%) to Dolce di Rossano and Roggianella monovarietal extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs). First, pepper extracts were investigated for their total phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid content as well as phenolic acids, fatty acid profile, and vitamin C and E content. In order to evaluate the impact of both fresh and dried peppers on the oxidative stability of FOOs, the Rancimat test was applied. 2,2-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ?-carotene bleaching (B-CB) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to investigate the antioxidant potential. Bishop crown dried extracts showed the highest phenolic, carotenoid and vitamin content, whereas Aji Angelo had the highest amount of capsaicinoids. Among EVOOs, Roggianella EVOO showed the highest antioxidant activity as well as the highest induction time (39.6 h). Remarkably, FOO obtained by the addition of Bishop crown dried pepper extract to Roggianella EVOO showed a higher induction time (44.9 h) with respect to the corresponding EVOO.</p> Pierluigi Plastina Rosa Tundis Chiara La Torre Vincenzo Sicari Angelo Maria Giuffré Alessandro Neri Marco Bonesi Mariarosaria Leporini Alessia Fazio Tiziana Falco Monica R. Loizzo Copyright (c) 2020 Pierluigi Plastina, Rosa Tundis, Chiara La Torre, Vincenzo Sicari, Angelo Maria Giuffré, Alessandro Neri, Marco Bonesi, Mariarosaria Leporini, Alessia Fazio, Tiziana Falco, Monica Rosa Loizzo 2021-02-06 2021-02-06 33 1 61 72 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1937 Optimization of stir-baked technology for Flos Sophorae Immaturus tea according to quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal design method and quality evaluation <p>This study aimed to optimize the stir-baked technology for Flos Sophorae Immaturus tea (FSIT) and evaluate the quality of FSIT. The optimum stir-baked conditions were found to be as follows: amount, 3.9 kg; rotation speed, 400 r/min; and time required to reach the temperature of 120°C, 5 min and maintained for 3.9 min after adding 15 mL of 1% stevioside. The machine-made FSIT soup was clear and golden in color, with charred taste, no bitterness, no peculiar smell, and improved sensory quality under the above-mentioned conditions. Heavy metal contents and microorganisms did not exceed the national standards.</p> Shang Fanghong Longyun Li Song Xuhong Tan Jun Wang Jirui Chen Gang Copyright (c) 2021 Shang Fanghong, Longyun Li, Song Xuhong, Tan Jun, Wang Jirui, Chen Gang 2021-02-15 2021-02-15 33 1 84 95 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1977 Influence of sugar concentration and sugar type on the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in spiced syrup preparation <p>Besides their culinary roles, spices in the eastern traditional medical practices serve as a medicinal diet therapy. The polyphenol-rich content of these spices contributes to their antioxidant properties, which convey the therapeutic elements. Traditionally, these phytonutrients are orally delivered via herbal decoction, including sugar-syrup-based decoctions. However, the impact of the addition of sugar into polyphenol content and their antioxidant activities are still insufficiently researched. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of sugar concentration and its types (refined and unrefined) on the polyphenol content and their antioxidant activities. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) did not exhibit any specific trend on either sugar concentration or its type. As indicative evidence, reducing sugar by less than 25% in such products can be considered for lower-calorie beverage development as a means for healthier diet choice.</p> Mohd Nazri Zayapor Aminah Abdullah Wan Aida Wan Mustapha Copyright (c) 2021 Mohd Nazri Zayapor, Aminah Abdullah, Wan Aida Wan Mustapha 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 33 1 96 105 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1874 Analytical approaches for discriminating native lard from other animal fats <p>Establishing the distinguishable characteristics of lard from other common animal fats might be helpful for authentication initiatives in foods and feeds. In this study, fatty acid and triacylglycerol compositions, thermal and spectroscopic characteristics of native lard (NL), respectively, were compared with those of beef tallow (BT), mutton tallow (MT), and chicken fat (CF) by using gas liquid chromatography (GLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). GLC analysis showed that the comparison of the overall fatty acid data might not be suitable for the discrimination of different animal fats, but the use of the principal component analysis and the percent palmitic acid enrichment factor [PAEF (%)] calculations were useful. HPLC analysis showed that NL displayed a TAG profile, which was quite different from those of either BT or MT, but appeared to be closely similar to that of CF. Results of DSC thermal analysis showed that both melting and crystallization curves of NL were remarkably different from those of other animal fats.</p> Nazrim Marikkar Marcello Alinovi Emma Chiavaro Copyright (c) 2021 Nazrim Marikkar, Marcello Alinovi, Emma Chiavaro 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 33 1 106 115 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1962 Garlic greening: Pigments biosynthesis and control strategies <p>Greening is a major problem for garlic’s quality. This phenomenon leads to discoloration of the product and is directly related to the alliinase-catalyzed conversion of isoalliin into 1-propenyl-containing thiosulfates. Garlic crushing, refrigeration, and storage in normal atmosphere, as well as in the presence of monocarboxylic acids, are established the main factors that promote its greening. In last decades, the study of biochemical pathway of this phenomenon has allowed to effectively understand the main steps and key enzymes involved, and to identify optimum conditions for chemical and enzymatic reactions leading to discoloration. These findings have, in some cases, determined the development of new tools for the control of garlic greening on large scale. After providing an updated description of the biochemistry of green pigments produced in garlic, this review reports an overview on the strategies for controlling discoloration of garlic at industrial level.</p> Alberto De Iseppi Andrea Curioni Matteo Marangon Simone Vincenzi Giovanna Lomolino Copyright (c) 2021 Alberto De Iseppi, Andrea Curioni, Matteo Marangon, Simone Vincenzi, Giovanna Lomolino 2021-02-13 2021-02-13 33 1 73 83 10.15586/ijfs.v33i1.1939