Italian Journal of Food Science 2023-04-12T00:00:00+00:00 PROF. PAOLO FANTOZZI [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong>Italian</strong> <strong>Journal</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Food</strong> <strong>Science</strong> is an international journal publishing original, basic, and applied papers, reviews, short communications, surveys, and opinions on food science and technology.</p> <p> </p> <p align="center"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" alt="" /></a></p> Natural phytochemicals as P2X7 receptor inhibitors for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases 2022-10-13T06:26:59+00:00 Qian Niu [email protected] Jin-cai Li [email protected] Meng Zhang [email protected] Peng Zhou [email protected] <p>P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) inhibition is critical for reducing the overactivation of its downstream signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases. Phytochemicals are a source of medicinal compounds for various diseases and contribute to the development of effective and safe P2X7R-targeted drugs. This review is aimed at identifying and screening novel safe, effective, and economically feasible inhibitors of P2X7R from phytochemicals extracted from food and plants. The results of the docking study revealed that the VINA scores of dihydrotanshinone, baicalin, berberine, genistin, dioscin, resveratrol, apigenin, cannabidiol, esculin, and luteolin were lower than or equal to that of A740003 (P2X7R inhibitor). The VINA scores of dihydrotanshinone and baicalin were lower than or equal to JNJ47965567 (P2X7R inhibitor). Dihydrotanshinone and baicalin can be used as lead compounds for P2X7R inhibition. These active ingredients will contribute to the discovery of lead compounds and the development of innovative P2X7R agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.</p> 2023-04-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Qian Niu, Jin-cai Li, Meng Zhang, Peng Zhou Pretreatment of kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside protects H9c2 cells against LPS-induced inflammation through the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway 2022-10-14T03:49:05+00:00 Yao-yao Ma [email protected] Xiao-ni Zhao [email protected] Lan Zhou [email protected] Sheng-nan Li [email protected] Juan Bai [email protected] Ling-li Shi [email protected] Fang Hua [email protected] Peng Zhou [email protected] <p>Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (KR) is a flavonoid glycoside derived from traditional Chinese medicine, plants, and tea, and has good myocardial protection. This study focuses on the mechanism of myocardial protection with KR and whether myocardial protection can be achieved by activating the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase–silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (sirtuin) (AMPK/SIRT1) signal pathway. Molecular docking technique was used to predict the binding affinity of KR to AMPK. The inflammatory injury model of H9c2 cells was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. H9c2 cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit -8 assay. The apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. Levels of interlukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay. AMPK and SIRT1 expression levels were quantified through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting assay. Results indicated that KR has a certain binding affinity with AMPK. KR could increase the growth of H9c2 inhibited by LPS, reduce apoptosis rate, and reverse the elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Furthermore, KR could suppress the expression levels of AMPK and SIRT1, and AMPK-specific inhibitor (Compound C) could significantly counteract the activation of KR, indicating that its anti-inflammatory effect is achieved by regulating the AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway.</p> 2023-04-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yao-yao Ma, Xiao-ni Zhao, Lan Zhou, Juan Bai, Ling-li Shi, Fang Hua, Peng Zhou Effect of traditional household processing techniques on phenolic compounds, antioxidants activity and γ-aminobutyric acid of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) pods 2023-03-03T17:10:18+00:00 Fatima Ali AlGhamdi [email protected] Amro B. Hassan [email protected] Nora Abdullah AlFaris [email protected] Jozaa Zaidan AlTamimi [email protected] <div id="abstract"> <p>The influence of common home processing methods was investigated on the color characteristics, phenolic component, antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] and ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] activity) and the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in cowpea pods. The processing methods significantly increased the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and the activity of antioxidant compounds (DPPH and FRAP). The GABA content sharply decreased in pods after boiling and drying treatment. However, it significantly increased after fermentation. The fermented cowpea pods displayed the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, GABA and anthocyanin as well as antioxidant activity. Hence, these traditional domestic preparation methods could be recommended for the food industry.</p> </div> 2023-05-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fatima AlGhamdi, Amro Hassan, Nora AlFaris, Jozaa AlTamimi Anthocyanin content prediction in frozen strawberry puree 2023-02-20T12:02:10+00:00 Laura García-Curiel [email protected] Jesús G. Pérez-Flores [email protected] Elizabeth Contreras-López [email protected] Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante [email protected] Aldahir Alberto Hernández-Hernández [email protected] <p>Rapid color degradation during processing and storage is a limitation when using strawberry puree (SP). This work aimed to use image analysis coupled with two machine learning algorithms: ordinary least squares (OLS) and artificial neural networks (ANNs), to predict anthocyanin content (AC) in frozen SP during its storage at –18°C for 120 days. When applying the OLS regression model, unsatisfactory AC prediction values were obtained due to multicollinearity. In contrast, a good prediction of AC using ANNs model was observed by comparing AC in SP predicted by the model versus the experimentally obtained values (coefficient of determination, <em>R</em><sup>2</sup> = 0.977).</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Laura García-Curiel, Jesús Guadalupe Pérez-Flores, Elizabeth Contreras-López, Emmanuel Pérez-Escalante, Aldahir Alberto Hernández-Hernández Effects of acidified apple juice before fermentation on ethyl carbamate and volatile components of apple distillate 2023-03-06T10:55:16+00:00 Zhicong Su [email protected] Yingying Han [email protected] Jinhua Du [email protected] <p>In order to eliminate ethyl carbamate (EC) content in apple distillate, Fuji apple juice was acidified to pH 3.0 by sulfuric acid (ST), malic acid (MT), lactic acid (LT), or citric acid (CT). The acidified juice was inoculated with yeast, fermented at room temperature, and distilled by double distillation. Acid treatment by ST (3.23 μg/L), MT (3.20 μg/L), LT (2.93 μg/L), and CT (3.57 μg/L) significantly eliminated EC from apple distillate. Combined with the EC content and sensory evaluation, it was suggested that the high-quality apple distillate could be obtained with lower EC if apple juice was treated with ST or MT before fermentation.</p> 2023-04-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zhicong Su, Yingying Han, Jinhua Du Optimization of producing functional sponge cake using a combination extract of green tea, white tea, and ginger 2022-11-17T10:31:34+00:00 Zohreh Pourzafar [email protected] Amir Hossein Elhamirad [email protected] Masoud Shafafi Zenoozian [email protected] Mohammad Armin [email protected] <p>Plant extracts play an important role in improving the quality properties and enhancing the shelf life of food products. In the present study, different concentrations of green tea (0–2%), white tea (0–2%), and ginger (0 to 1.5%) extracts were used to formulate a sponge cake. Response surface methodology was used to investigate cake quality attributes. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>; &gt;0.95) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The overall optimum area with high stability was found at a combined level of green tea (1.44%), white tea (1.71%), and ginger (0.75%) extracts.</p> 2023-05-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Zohreh Pourzafar, Amir Hossein Elhamirad, Shafafi Zenoozian, Mohammad Armin Peptide extraction from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) scales via enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane filtration 2022-11-09T10:29:02+00:00 Xiao-yan Zu [email protected] Ya-qi Huang [email protected] Ya-jing Zhao [email protected] Guang-quan Xiong [email protected] Tao Liao [email protected] Hai-lan Li [email protected] <p>In this work, peptides were extracted from Silver carp (SC) scales via protease hydrolysis and separated using two membranes (M1 and M2). The results revealed that the water: SC scale ratios of 50.6 mL/g, alkaline protease 1 (AP1) dose of 2313.6 U/mL, and pH of 8.14 were the optimal hydrolysis conditions, and the peptide yield reached 88.77 ± 0.32%. The optimal conditions of peptide separation were clarified: the operating pressure of the M1 (M2) was 0.25 (0.4) MPa, the liquid temperature was 30°C, and the operation time was 65 min. In this case, the permeability of the M1 (M2) reached 91.73 ± 96% (79.83 ± 7.23%), and the average molecular weight of the peptides was 758 Da (576 Da). Compared with M1 peptides, M2 peptides contained more acidic and aromatic amino acids exhibiting free-radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition properties. It might provide a way to utilize SC scales as a promising material to produce bioactive peptides.</p> 2023-05-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Xiaoyan Zu, Yaqi Huang, Yajing Zhao, Guangquan Xiong, Tao Liao, Hailan Li Evaluation of the Functional Properties and Safety of Enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium BT29.11 Isolated from Turkish Beyaz Cheese and its Inhibitory Activity against Listeria monocytogenes in UHT Whole Milk 2023-01-26T13:31:29+00:00 Melike Seda Toplu [email protected] Banu Özden Tuncer [email protected] <p>The goal of this research was to evaluate the functional properties and safety of antilisterial <em>Enterococcus faecium</em> BT29.11 isolated from Turkish Beyaz cheese. <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11 showed the highest inhibitory activity against <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>, followed by <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11 was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and genus- and species-specific PCR. The <em>entA, entB</em>, and <em>entX</em> structural genes were detected in <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11. It was determined that the BT29.11 strain was a slow acid producer and did not show extracellular proteolytic and lipolytic activity. <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11 demonstrated good probiotic properties. <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11 was found to be ɣ-hemolytic, gelatinase-negative, and susceptible to clinically important antibiotics. Only <em>ermC</em> and <em>acm</em> were detected in the BT29.11 strain. <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11 decreased the growth of <em>L. monocytogenes</em> in ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk. The findings of this research indicated that <em>E. faecium</em> BT29.11, an antilisterial strain, might be employed as a probiotic adjunct culture in fermented food products.</p> 2023-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Melike Seda Toplu, Banu Özden Tuncer Effectiveness of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus to contain Escherichia coli on milk and temperature impact on predation dynamics 2023-03-09T10:03:05+00:00 Silvia Pieralisi [email protected] Cristina Canonico [email protected] Stefania Di Lullo [email protected] Gabriele Angelico [email protected] Gianluigi Cardinali [email protected] Elena Rocchegiani [email protected] Diego Maiolatesi [email protected] Donatella Ottaviani [email protected] <p>We tested the predation of <em>B. bacteriovorus</em> against <em>Escherichia coli</em> in milk samples in three different experiments. In Experiment 1, the growth and predatory activity of <em>B. bacteriovorus</em> against <em>E. coli</em> in milk stored at 4°C were evaluated. In Experiment 2, the predatory activity of <em>B. bacteriovorus</em> against <em>E. coli</em> in the milk matrix was compared to the optimal one in the medium of choice. In Experiment 3, the influence of the native milk microbial community on the predation of <em>B. bacteriovorus</em> against <em>E. coli</em> experimentally added or indigenous grown at 4°C was tested. The predator increased at 4°C by about 1 Log in the first 48 hours and caused <em>E. coli</em> decrease by about 2 Log after 24 hours. The predator at 30°C reduced <em>E. coli</em> faster (3 Log after 6 hours) than at 4°C (2 Log after 24 hours). <em>B. bacteriovorus</em> at 30°C preyed on <em>E. coli</em> more in the nutrient broth than in the milk, with the most significant difference by about 4 Log after 48 hours. In raw milk contaminated only by the predator, it increased by about 1 Log after 48 hours at 4°C, suggesting that it preyed on indigenous microorganisms. <em>B. bacteriovorus</em> could find application in raw milk used as food or raw material during storage at 4°C to reduce the microbial load of spoilage and Shigatoxin-producing <em>E. coli</em> (STEC) strains of <em>E. coli</em> and therefore increase its shelf-life and healthiness.</p> 2023-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Silvia Pieralisi, Cristina Canonico, Stefania Di Lullo, Gabriele Angelico, Gianluigi Cardinali, Elena Rocchegiani, Diego Maiolatesi, Donatella Ottaviani