Main Article Content
wax apple cider vinegar, functional properties, storage, quality
Several quality attributes of wax apple cider vinegar (WACV) were determined every 30 days for six months at ambient temperature. Acetic acid fermentation significantly increased the acetic acid content in WACV. The light-ness and yellowness gradually decreased, whereas redness increased during storage. Density, viscosity, and pH of WACV continuously retarded, and total acidity, volatile acidity, electrical conductivity, and total nitrogen content increased during storage. Phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant potentials of WACV were affected by storage. Various amino acids and volatile compounds were observed in WACV during storage. Throughout the storage period, the microbial growth in WACV was considerably low.
Alberti, A., Santos, T.P.M., Zielinski, A.A.F., Santos, C.M.E., Braga, C.M. and Demiate, I.M. 2016. Impact on chemical profile in apple juice and cider made from unripe, ripe and senescent dessert varieties. LWT-Food. Sci. Technol. 65:436–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2015.08.045
Alberti, A., Zielinski, A.A.F., Zardo, D.M., Demiate, I.M., Nogueira, A. and Mafra, L.I. 2014. Optimisation of the extraction of phenolic compounds from apples using response surface methodology. Food. Chem. 149:151–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.086
American Public Health Association. 1978. Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. 14th ed. APHA Inc., Washington, DC.
AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
AOAC. 2002. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Ardö, Y. 2006. Flavour formation by amino acid catabolism. Biotechnol. Adv. 24(2): 238–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2005.11.005
Bavishetty, S.C.B. and Venkatachalam, K. 2021. Physicochemical qualities and antioxidant properties of juice extracted from ripe and overripe wax apple as affected by pasteurization and sonication. J. Food. Process. Preserv. 45(6): e15524. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.15524
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E. and Berset, C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food. Sci. Technol. 28(1): 25–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
Beever, R.E. and Bollard, E.G. 1970. The nature of the stimulation of fungal growth by potato extract. J. Gen. Microbiol. 60(2): 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-60-2-273
Budak, H.N., Aykin, E., Seydim, C.A., Greene, K.A. and Guzel-Seydim, B.Z. 2014. Functional properties of vinegar. J. Food. Sci. 79(5): 757–764. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12434
Campodonico, P., Barbieri, E., Pizarro, M., Sotomayor, C.P. and Lissi, E.A. 1998. A comparison between total phenol content of wines and their TRAP values measured by the bleaching of ABTS radical cations. J. Chil. Chem. Soc. 43:281–285 .
Charles, M., Martin, B., Ginies, C., Etievant, P., Coste, G. and Guichard, E. 2000. Potent aroma compounds of two red wine vinegars. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 48(1):70–77. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9905424
Chen, G., Zheng, F., Shui-Bing Lao, B.L., He, J., Huang, Z., Zeng, Y., et al. 2020. Phenolic and volatile compounds in the production of sugarcane vinegar. ACS. Omega. 5:30587–30535. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c04524
Chidi, S.B., Bauer, F.F. and Rossouw, D. 2018. Organic acid metabolism and the impact of fermentation practices on wine acidity: a review. South African J. Enol. Vitic. 39(2): 1–15. https://doi.org/10.21548/39-2-3172
Dabija, A. and Hatnean, A.C. 2014. Study concerning the quality of apple vinegar obtained through classical method. J. Agroaliment. Proc. Technol. 20(4):304–310.
Davies, V.C., Gerard, M.L., Ferreyra, M.M., Schvab, C.M. and Solda, A.C. 2017. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis during orange vinegar production. Food. Sci. Technol. 37(3):449–455. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-457x.20816
Dias, R.D., Silva, S.M., Souza, C.A., Magalhaes-Guedes, T.K., Rezende Ribeiro, S.F. and Schwan, F.R. 2016. Vinegar production from Jabuticaba (Myriciaria jaboticaba) fruit using immobilized acetic acid bacteria. Food. Technol. Biotechnol. 54(3):351–359. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.54.03.16.4416
Gomez-Garcia, M., Sol, C., de Nova, P.J.G., Puyalto, M., Mesas, L., Puente, H., et al. 2019. Antimicrobial activity of a selection of organic acids, their salts and essential oils against swine enteropathogenic bacteria. Porc. Health. Manag. 5(32):1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40813-019-0139-4
Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, JMC and Aruoma, O.I. 1987. The deoxyribose method: a simple "test-tube" assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal. Biochem. 165:215–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(87)90222-3
Hornedo-Ortega, R., Alvarez-Fernandez, M.A., Cerezo, A.B., Garcia-Garcia, I., Troncoso, A.M. and Garcia-Parrilla, M.C. 2017. Influence of fermentation process on the anthocyanin composition of wine and vinegar elaborated from strawberry. J. Food. Sci. 82(2):364–372. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13624
Ho, W.C., Lazim, M.A., Fazry, S., Zaki, H.H.K.U. and Lim, S. 2017. Varieties, production, composition and health benefits of vinegars: a review. Food. Chem. 221:1621–1630. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.10.128
Jackson, R.S. 2008. Biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation. In: Wine science, principles and applications. Academic Press, San Diego, USA, pp. 358–363.
Johnston, C.S. and Gaas, C.A. 2006. Vinegar: medicinal uses and antiglycemic effect. Med. Gen. Med. 8(2):61.
Joshi, V.K., Yadav, J., Sharma, R., Joshi, D. and Gupta, R.K. 2016. Effect of nutrients and growth stimulators on acetic acid fermentation using natural consortia. Int. J. Food. Ferment. Technol. 6: 81–95. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-9396.2016.00030.1
Kabasakalis, V., Siopidou, D. and Moshatou, E. 2000. Ascorbic acid content of commercial fruit juices and its rate of loss upon storage. Food. Chem. 70(3):325–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00093-5
Kang, M., Ha, J. and Lee, Y. 2020. Physiochemical properties, antioxidant activities and sensory characteristics of commercial grape vinegars during long term storage. Food. Sci. Technol. (Campinas). 40(4):909–916. https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.25119
Kaur, P., Kocher, G.S. and Phutela, R.P. 2011. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation. J. Food. Sci. Technol. 48(6):755–758. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-010-0143-9
Kocher, G.S., Kalra, K.L. and Phutela, R.P. 2006. Comparative production of sugarcane vinegar by different immobilization techniques. J. Inst. Brew. 112:264–266. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2050-0416.2006.tb00722.x
Lea, A.G.H. 1989. Cider vinegar. In: Downing, D.L. (ed.), ,Processed apple products. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 279–301. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-8225-6_13
Lee, K.K., Oh, C.Y., Cho, K.W. and Ma, Y.J. 2015. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity determination of one hundred kinds of pure chemical compounds using offline and online screening HPLC assay. eCAM. 165457:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/165457
Mas, A., Torija, J.M., Garcia-Parrilla, C.M. and Troncoso, M.A. 2014. Acetic acid bacteria and the production and quality of wine vinegar. Sci. World. J. 394671:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/394671
Moruno, G.E., Delfini, C., Pessione, E. and Giunta, C. 1993. Factors affecting acetic acid production by yeasts in strongly clarified grape musts. Microbios. 74: 249–256.
Pietrowski, G.A.M., Santos, C.M., Sauer, E., Wosiacki, G. and Nogueira, A. 2012. Influence of fermentation with Hanseniaspora sp. yeast on the volatile profile of fermented apple. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 60:9815–9821. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf302290k
Raspor, P. and Goranovic, D. 2008. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria. Crit. Rev. Biotechnol. 28(2):101–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/07388550802046749
Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Glories, Y., Maujean, A. and Dubordieu, D. 2006. Handbook of enology: the Chemistry of Wine Stabilization and Treatments. Wiley, New York. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470010398
Schlesier, K., Harwat, M., Bohm. V. and Bitsch, R. 2002. Assessment of antioxidant, activity by using different in vitro methods. Free. Radic. Res. 36(2):1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760290006411
Shimoji, Y., Tamura, Y., Nakamura, Y., Nanda, K., Nishidai, S., Nishikawa, Y., et al. 2002. Isolation and identification of DPPH radical scavenging compounds in Kurosu (Japanese unpolished rice vinegar). J. Agric. Food. Chem. 50(22):6501–6503. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020458f
Štornik, A., Skok, B. and Trcek, J. 2016. Comparison of cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in organic and conventional apple cider vinegar. Food. Technol. Biotechnol. 54:113–119. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.54.01.16.4082
Tarazona-Diaz, M.P. and Aguayo, E. 2013. Influence of acidification, pasteurization, centrifugation and storage time and temperature on watermelon juice quality. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 93(15):3863–3869. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6332
Techakanon, C. and Sirimuangmoon, C. 2020. The effect of pasteurization and shelf life on the physicochemical, microbiological, antioxidant and sensory properties of rose apple cider during cold storage. Beverages. 6:43. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030043
Techakanon, C. and Venkatachalam, K. 2021. The effect of pasteurization conditions and storage time on microbial safety, quality and antioxidant properties of cider from rose apple (Syzygium agueum Alston cv. Taaptimjan). Chiang. Mai. Uni. J. Nat. Sci. 20(2): e2021034. https://doi.org/10.12982/CMUJNS.2021.034
Ubeda, C., Callejoin, R.M., Hidalgo, C., Torija, M.J., Mas, A., Troncoso, A.M. et al. 2011. Determination of major volatile compounds during the production of fruit vinegar by static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Food. Res. Int. 44(1): 259–268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.10.025
Valero, E., Berlanga, M.T., Roldan, M.P., Jimenez, C., Garcia, I. and Mauricio, C.J. 2005. Free amino acids and volatile compounds in vinegars obtained from different types of substrate. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85(4): 603–608. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2016
Venkatachalam, K., Techankanon, C. and Thitithanakul, S. 2018. Impact of ripening stage of wax apples on chemical profiles of juice and cider. ACS. Omega. 3:6710–6718. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.8b00680
Verzelloni, E., Tagliazucchi, D. and Conte, A. 2007. Relationship between the antioxidant properties and the phenolic and flavonoid content in traditional balsamic vinegar. Food. Chem. 105(2): 564–571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.014
Vithlani, V.A. and Patel, H.V. 2010. Production of functional vinegar from Indian jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana) and its antioxidant properties. J. Food. Technol. 8(3): 143–149. https://doi.org/10.3923/jftech.2010.143.149
Wang, B., Shao, Y., Chen, T., Chen, W. and Chen, F. 2015. Global insights into acetic acid resistance mechanisms and genetic stability of Acetobacter pasteurianus strains by comparative genomics. Sci. Rep. 5:18330–18330. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep18330
Wood, D. and Anderson, K. 2006. What determines the future value of an icon wine? New evidence from Australia. J. Wine. Econ. 1(2):141–161. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1931436100000171
Yagnik, D., Serafin, V. and Shah, J.A. 2018. Antimicrobial activity of apple cider vinegar against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans; downregulating cytokine and microbial protein expression. Sci. Rep. 8:1732. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18618-x
Yang, J.F., Yang, C.H., Liang, M.T., Gao, Z.J., Wu, Y.W. and Chuang, L.Y. 2016. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis. Molecules. 21(9):1–10. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21091150
Zhao, C., Xia, T., Du, P., Duan, W., Zhang, B., Zhang, J. et al. 2018. Chemical composition and antioxidant characteristic of traditional and industrial Zhenjiang aromatic vinegars during the aging process. Molcules. 23(11): 2949. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23112949