OCCURRENCE OF DEOXYNIVALENOL IN BEERS COMMERCIALISED IN ITALY

Main Article Content

M. GRUMI
A. KUNOVA
M. ISOTTI
A. BARBIROLI
M. PASQUALI

Keywords

consumption level, ELISA, fermented beverage, food safety, mycotoxins, wheat

Abstract

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most frequently detected mycotoxin in beer. This study represents a comprehensive assessment of DON occurrence in beers from the Italian market. Seventy-two craft and industrial beer samples were tested using the RIDASCREEN DON® ELISA method. DON was found in all samples. The average DON contamination was 34.3 ug/L (range: 6.1-111.2 ug/L). The highest contamination level was found in a wheat-based sample. Our study determined that wheat-based beers have a higher DON contamination than barley-based beers. Further studies are needed to verify the role of single ingredients on the risk of DON accumulation in beers.
Abstract 144 | pdf Downloads 90

References

Arrúa A.A., Mendes J.M., Arrúa P., Ferreira F.P., Caballero G., Cazal C., Kohli M.M., Peralta I., Ulke G. and Fernández Ríos D. 2019. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A in beers and wines commercialized in Paraguay. Toxins. 11(6):308. DOI: doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060308

Assobirra. 2018. Assobirra annual report. 24-27. www.assobirra.it/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/AnnualReport_2018_PagineSingole.pdf

Bauer J.I., Gross M., Gottschalk C. and Usleber E. 2016. Investigations on the occurrence of mycotoxins in beer. Food Control. 63:135-139. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.11.040

Berthiller F., Crews C., Dall’asta C., Saeger S. De, Haesaert G., Karlovsky P., Oswald I.P., Seefelder W., Speijers G. and Stroka J. 2013. Masked mycotoxins: a review. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 57:165-186. DOI: doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201100764

Beyer M., Pogoda F., Pallez M., Lazic J., Hoffmann L. and Pasquali M. 2014. evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 182-183:51-56. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.05.002

EFSA. 2013. Deoxynivalenol in food and feed: occurrence and exposure. EFSA J. 11(10). DOI: doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3379

EFSA Contam Panel. 2017. Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated and modified forms in food and feed. EFSA J. 15(9). DOI: doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2017.4718

Ferrigo D., Raiola A. and Causin R. 2016. Fusarium toxins in cereals: occurrence, legislation, factors promoting the appearance and their management. Molecules. 21(5):627. DOI: doi.org/10.3390/molecules21050627

Jasp Team. 2019. Jasp (Version 0.11.1)[Computer Software]. https://jasp-stats.org/

Jin Z., Zhou B., Gillespie J., Gross T., Barr J., Simsek S., Brueggeman R. and Schwarz P. 2018. Production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and DON-3-glucoside during the malting of Fusarium infected hard red spring wheat. Food Control. 85:6. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.09.002

Kostelanska M., Hajslova J., Zachariasova M., Malachova A., Kalachova K., Poustka J., Fiala J., Scott P.M., Berthiller F. and Krska R. 2009. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and its major conjugate, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, in beer and some brewing intermediates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57(8):3187-3194. DOI: doi.org/10.1021/jf803749u

Ksieniewicz-Wozniak E., Bryla M., Waskiewicz A., Yoshinari T. and Szymczyk K. 2019. Selected trichothecenes in barley malt and beer from Poland and an assessment of dietary risks associated with their consumption. Toxins. 11(715):1-15. DOI: doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120715

Kuzdralinski A., Solarska E. and Muszynska M. 2013. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone occurence in beers analysed by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. Food Control. 29(1):22-24. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.06.003

Papadopoulou-Bouraoui A., Vrabcheva T., Valzacchi S., Stroka J. and Anklam E. 2004. Screening survey of deoxynivalenol in beer from the European market by an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Food Addit. Contam. 21(6):607-617. DOI: doi.org/10.1080/02652030410001677745

Pascari X., Ortiz-Solá J., Marín S., Ramos A.J. and Sanchis V. 2018. Survey of mycotoxins in beer and exposure assessment through the consumption of commercially available beer in Lleida, Spain. LWT. 9:87-91. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2018.02.021

Pasquali M., Beyer M., Logrieco A., Audenaert K., Balmas V., Basler R., Boutigny A.L., Chrpová J., Czembor E., Gagkaeva T., González-Jaén M.T., Hofgaard I.S., Köycü N.D., Hoffmann L., Levic J., Marin P., Miedaner T., Migheli Q., Moretti A., Müller M.E.H., Munaut F., Parikka P., Pallez-Barthel M., Piec J., Scauflaire J., Scherm B., Stankovic S., Thrane U., Uhlig S., Vanheule A., Yli-Mattila T. and Vogelgsang S. 2016. A European database of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum trichothecene genotypes. Front. Microbiol. 7:406. DOI: doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00406

Pedroso Pereira L.T., Putnik P., Tadashi Iwase C.H. and Oliveira Rocha L. De. 2019. Deoxynivalenol: insights on genetics, analytical methods and occurrence. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 24:1-8. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2019.01.003

Peters J., Dam R. Van, Doorn R. Van, Katerere D., Berthiller F., Haasnoot W. and Nielen M.W.F. 2017. Mycotoxin profiling of 1000 beer samples with a special focus on craft beer. PLoS ONE. 12(10):1-27. DOI: doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185887

Piacentini K.C., Savi G.D., Olivo G. and Scussel V.M. 2015. Quality and occurrence of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in craft beer. Food Control. 50:925-929. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.10.038

Pietri A., Bertuzzi T., Barbieri G. and Fortunati P. 2003. Analisi di micotossine in birre nazionali ed estere mediante HPLC e GC-MS. Conference Paper: V Congresso di chimica degli alimenti, Parma (Italy) (in italian).

Plotly Technologies Inc. 2015. Collaborative Data Science. https://help.plot.ly/make-a-line-of-best-fit/

Rodríguez-Carrasco Y., Fattore M., Albrizio S., Berrada H. and Mañes J. 2015. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins and their dietary intake through beer consumption by the European population. Food Chem. 178:149-155. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.01.092

Varga E., Malachova A., Schwartz H., Krska R. and Berthiller F. 2013. Survey of deoxynivalenol and its conjugates deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in 374 beer samples. Food Addit. Contam. -Part A. 30(1):137-146. DOI: doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2012.726745

Wall-Martínez H.A., Pascari X., Bigordà A., Ramos A.J., Marín S. and Sanchis V. 2019 a. The fate of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol and zearalenone) through wort fermenting by Saccharomyces yeasts (S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus). Food Res. Int. 126:108587. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2019.108587

Wall-Martínez H.A., Pascari X., Ramos A.J., Marín S. and Sanchis V. 2019 b. Frequency and levels of mycotoxins in beer from the Mexican market and exposure estimate for deoxynivalenol mycotoxins. Mycotoxin Res. 35(2):207-216. DOI: doi.org/10.1007/s12550-019-00347-x

Young J.C., Fulcher R.G., Hayhoe J.H., Scott P.M. and Dexter J.E. 1984. Effect of milling and baking on deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) content of Eastern Canadian wheats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 32(3):659-664. DOI: doi.org/10.1021/jf00123a058