Efficacy of Neutralised Electrolysed Water and Mild Heat Against Foodborne Pathogens Isolated from Ficus carica

Main Article Content

Cigdem Yamaner
Muavviz Ayvaz
Ramazan Konak
Nilgun Topçu
Ilknur Kösoğlu
Aanatoli Dimoglo


Aspergillus flavus, Bacillus cereus, Penicillium expansum, sanitizer


Problems with microorganism toxins in dried fig exports are becoming very important. Chlorine-based sanitizers are effective way of controlling microorganisms, but on the other hand their reaction with natural organic and inorganic matter may potentially form carcinogenic products. Therefore, different sanitizers for the disinfection of food and food contact surfaces are required as an alternative to chlorine-based sanitizers. Some earlier studies revealed that neutralised electrolysed water (NEW) may be a potential substitute for cleaning and sanitizing agents in packaged products. In order to make a contribution to solve toxins problems, the antibacterial and antifungal effect of neutralised electrolysed water (NEW) on the foodborne pathogens were evaluated in this study. Spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium expansum were isolated from the surface of fig fruits.  Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus known to occur on the surface of figs were also evaluated. Vegetative cells and spores of bacterium and fungi were exposed to five different concentrations of NEW (100, 75, 25, 5 and 1%) at three different temperatures (22, 50 and 70°C) for 1, 3 and 5 min. According to the results, at 22°C, 1% neutralised electrolysed water exposure for 1 min effectively decreased the number of vegetative cells of E. coli and B. cereus by approximately 8.5 log cfu/ml and 6.3 log cfu/ml,  respectively.  At 50°C, 5% neutralised electrolysed water exposure for 1 min significantly reduced the A. flavus and P. expansum spore numbers by 5.54 log cfu/ml and 7 log cfu/ml, respectively. With the effect of mild temperature (22-50°C), low chlorine neutralised electrolysed water (9.22 mg/l - 33.85 mg/l available chlorine concentrations) showed a strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against foodborne pathogens. As a conclusion, neutralised electrolysed water can be used widely as a sanitizer in fig enterprises, instead of high cost chlorine based disinfectants.

Abstract 685 | PDF Downloads 438


- Akbas M.Y., Ozdemir M. 2008. Application of gaseous ozone to control populations of Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus cereus spores in dried figs. Food Microbiol 25: 386-391.
- Al-Haq M.I., Sugiyama J. 2004. Application of electrolyzed water in food processing. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ASAE/CSAE annual meeting. ASAE paper No: 04-6178.
- Allende A., McEvoy J., Tao Y., Luo Y. 2009. Antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite, and citric acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora of fresh-cut cilantro. Food Control 20: 230-4.
- Audenaert K., Monbaliu S., Deschuyffeleer N., Maene P., Vekeman F., Haesaert G., Saeger S., Eeckhout M. 2012. Neutralized electrolyzed water efficiently reduces Fusarium spp. in vitro and on wheat kernels but can trigger deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis. Food Control 23: 515-521.
- Bari M.L., Sabina Y., Isobe S., Uemura T., Isshiki K. 2003. Effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidized water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of tomatoes. J Food Protect 66: 542-548.
- Cui X., Shang Y., Shi Z., Xin H., Cao W. 2009. Physicochemical properties and bactericidal efficiency of neutral and acidic electrolyzed water under different storage conditions. J Food Eng 91: 582-586.
- Çal??kan O., Polat A.A. 2012. Morphological diversity among fig (Ficus carica L.) accessions sampled from the Eastern Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Turk J Agric For 36: 179-193.
- Delaquis P.J., Fukumoto L.R., Toivonen P.M.A., Cliff M.A. 2004. Implications of wash water chlorination and temperature for the microbiological and sensory properties of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Postharvest Biol Technol 31: 81- 91.
- Dychdala G.R. 1983. Chlorine and chlorine compounds. In: Block SS, editor. Disinfection, Sterilization, and Preservation. Third ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, pp. 157-182.
- Fawell J. 2000. Risk assessment case study chloroformand related substances. Food and Chem Toxicol 38: 91-5.
- Frazier W.C., Westhoff D.C. 1988. Food Microbiology, fourth ed. McGraw-Hill. New York. USA.
- Fujikawa H., Itoh T. 1996. Tailing of thermal inactivation curve of Aspergillus niger spores. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 3745-3749.
- Guentzel J.L., Lam K.L., Callan M.A., Emmons S.A., Dunham V.L. 2008. Reduction of bacteria on spinach, lettuce, and surfaces in food service areas using neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water. Food Microbiol 25: 36-41.
- Hati S., Mandal S., Minz P.S., Vij S., Khetra Y., Singh B.P., Yadav D. 2012. Electrolyzed oxidized water (EOW): non-thermal approach for decontamination of food borne microorganisms in food industry. Food Nutr Sci 3: 760- 768.
- Hayashibara T., Kadowaki A., Yuda N. 1994. A study of the disinfection/microbicidal effects of electrolyzed oxidizing water. Japanese Journal of Medical Technol 43: 555-561.
- Heperkan D. 2006. The importance of mycotoxins and a brief history of mycotoxin studies in Turkey. Special issue "Mycotoxins: hidden hazards in food". ARI Bulletin of ITU 54: 18-27.
- Ileri Ç., Sezen I.Y., Dimoglo A. 2006. Elektro-aktive asitli suyun baz? patojen mikroorganizmalar?n standart su?lar? üzerindeki etkisinin ara?t?r?lmas?. Mikrobiyol Bult 40: 317-324.
- Issa-Zacharia A., Kamitani Y., Morita K., Iwasaki K. 2010. Sanitization potency of slightly acidic electrolyzed water against pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, in comparison with that of other food sanitizers. Food Control 21: 740-745.
- Iwasawa A., Nakamura Y., Mizuno T. 1993. Bactericidal activity of aqua oxidation water against clinically isolated strains. Nihon Kankyou Kansen Gakkaishi 8: 11-16.
- Juneja V.K., Sofos J.N. 2002. Control of food borne microorganisms. NewYork, NY, USA: Marcel Dekker.
- Karbancioglu-Güler F., Heperkan D. 2009. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 in dried figs as an unexpected hazard. Food Chem Toxicol 47: 289-292.
- Kim C., Hung Y.C., Brackett R.E. 2000. Roles of oxidation-reduction potential in electrolyzed oxidizing and chemically modified water for the inactivation of food- related pathogens. J Food Protect 63: 19-24.
- Kiura H., Sano K., Morimatsu S. 2002. Bactericidal activity of electrolyzed acid water from solution containing sodium chloride at low concentration, in comparison with that at high concentration. Int J Food Microbiol Method 49: 285-293.
- Koseki S., Yoshida K., Kamitani Y., Itoh K. 2003. Influence of inoculation method, spot inoculation site, and inoculation size on the efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water against pathogens on lettuce. J Food Protect 66: 2010-2016.
- Koseki S., Yoshida K., Isobe S., Itoh K. 2004. Efficacy of acidic electrolyzed water for microbial decontamination of cucumbers and strawberries. J Food Protect 67: 1247-1251.
- Len S.V., Hung Y.C., Erickson M.C., Kim C. 2000. Ultraviolet spectrophotometric characterizations and bacterial properties of electrolyzed oxidizing water as influenced by amperage and pH. J Food Protect 63: 1534-1537.
- Mamadzhanov U.D., Bakhir V.M., Shamsutdinova V.N., Bakhir T.M. 1974. A method of drilling fluid treatment. USSR Author's Certificate No. 929682 dated 22.04.1974.
- Marais J.T., Brozel V.S. 1999. Electro-chemically activated water in dental unit water lines. Br Dent J 187: 154-158.
- Mead P.S., Slutsker L., Sietz V., McCaig L.F., Bresee J.S., Shapiro C., Griffin P.M., Tauxe R.V. 1999. Food-related illness and death in theUnited States. Emerg Infect and Dis 5: 607-625.
- Okull D.O., Laborde L.F. 2004. Activity of electrolyzed oxidizing water against Penicilium expansum on suspension and on wounded apples. J Food Sci 69: 23-27.
- Ongeng D., Devlieghere F., Debevere J., Coosemans J., Ryckeboer J. 2006. The efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for inactivating spoilage microorganisms in process water and on minimally processed vegetables. Int J Food Microbiol 109: 187-197.
- Park C.M., Hung Y.C., Doyle M.P., Ezeike G.O.I., Kim C. 2001. Pathogen reduction and quality of lettuce treated with electrolyzed oxidizing and acidified chlorinated water. J Food Sci 66: 1368-1372.
- Rahman S.M.E., Ding T., Oh D.H. 2010. Effectiveness of low concentration electrolyzed water to inactivate foodborne pathogens under different environmental conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 139: 147-153.
- Roberts R.G., Reymond S.T. 1994. Chlorine dioxide for reduction of postharvest pathogen inoculum during handling of tree fruits. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 2864-2868.
- Robinson G.M., Lee S.W.H., Greenman J., Salisbury V.C., Reynolds D.M. 2010. Evaluation of the efficacy of electrochemically activated solutions against nosocomial pathogens and bacterial endospores. Lett Appl Microbiol 50: 289-294.
- Schaeffer A.B., Fulton M.D. 1933. A simplified method of staining endospores. Science 77: 194.
- Spadaro D., Vola R., Piano S., Gullino M.L. 2002. Mechanism of action and efficacy of four isolates of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima active against postharvest pathogens on apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 24: 123-134.
- TUIK (2012) Turkish statistical institute 2012 yearbook. Ankara, TR: TUIK Publications.
- Udompijitkul P., Daeschel M.A., Zhao Y. 2007. Antimicrobial effect of electrolyzed oxidizing water against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). J Food Sci 72: M397-M406.
- Venkitanarayanan K.S., Ezeike G.O.I., Hung Y.C., Doyle M.P. 1999. Efficacy of electrolyzed oxidizing water for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, and Listeria monocytogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol 65: 4276-4279.
- Willet M., Kupferman G., Roberts R., Spotts R., Sugar D., Apel G., Ewart H., Bryant B. 1989. Integrated management of postharvest diseases and disorders of apples, pears, and cherries. Post-Harvest Pomol Newsl 7: 1-4.
- Zeng X., Tang W., Ye G., Ouyang T., Tian L., Ni Y., Li P. 2010. Studies on disinfection mechanism of electrolyzed oxidizing water on E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Food Sci 75(5): 253-260.