Nutritional assessment concerning anthropometric, demographic, and food frequency questionnaires of hemodialysis patients in Sargodha, Pakistan

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Rahema Hameed
Muhammad Yousaf Quddoos
Shahid Mahmood
Tayyaba Sami Ullah
Ammara Ainee
Ayesha Rafique
Sayyada Sana Mahmood
Muqaddas Fatima
Anand Kumar
Faiqa Chaudhry
Nida Firdous
Shazia Yaqub
Muhammad Siddique Raza
Suliman Yousef Alomar
Syeda Ayesha Batool
Rida Batool



Hemodialysis is a process in which the blood is resected using a dialysis apparatus and a specific strainer known as dialyzer. Poor nutritional status is common among hemodialysis patients, but only a few studies are found on how hemodialysis is affected by other factors in the local environment. The aim of this study was to find out hemo-dialysis patients’ nutritional status and the factors that influence it. A total of 100 hemodialysis individuals (50 patients and 50 volunteers) was enrolled in this study. Anthropometry and biochemical assays, as well as nutrition assessments, were used as additional evaluation methods. According to multiple linear regression analysis, malnutrition is linked to older age, poor and lean body mass, and higher body mass index. Factors, such as interdialytic weight gain, insufficient calorie and protein consumption, and existence of morbidities, are considered along with inflammation. This study was performed at various hospitals of Sargodha district in Pakistan. Various variables of hemodialysis patients’ poor nutritional status are changeable, and these must be considered when developing and implementing effective intervention programs for this vulnerable group. Nutritional health status of hemodialysis patients was evaluated using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), concerning multiple factors, such as demographics, anthropometrics, body composition, vital signs, clinical manifestations, dietary intake, edema on the feet, triceps skin fold thickness, mild arm circumference, hand grip strength, and micronutrients. FFQs showed the overall effect of hemodialysis. Further statistical calculations and studies were conducted using SPSS, Minitab 8.1 for descriptive analysis tests for demographic features, and analysis of variance ANOVA.

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