Effect of egg type and storage conditions on the quality of crispy Thai pancake (Thong Phap)

Main Article Content

Sunisa Siripongvutikorn
Worapong Usawakesmanee
Ponruedee Sud-on


egg white, quality, mineral, protein, cold storage, room temperature storage


Eggs were stored within 24 h after laying at 4±2oC and 28±2oC for 25 days (d). Egg quality was monitored during cold and room temperature storage for producing Thong Phap. Longer storage time led to an increase in weight loss and pH, while the Haugh Unit (H.U.) and viscosity of the egg white decreased. Eggs stored at a higher temperature, particularly duck eggs, exhibited faster parameter changes. The main protein types in duck and chicken egg whites determined by SDS-PAGE were ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and ovomucin. Microbial standards indicated that the shelf life of duck eggs was lower than chicken eggs. Na, P, and K contents of duck egg white were higher than a chicken egg, while storage temperature and time did not significantly affect mineral content.

Abstract 112 | PDF Downloads 155 HTML Downloads 0 XML Downloads 58


Akter, Y., Kasim, A., Omar, H. and Sazili, A.Q. 2014. Effect of storage time and temperature on the quality characteristics of chicken eggs. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 12(3&4):87–92.

Akyurek, H. and Okur, A.A. 2009. Effect of storage time temp and hen age. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8: 1953–1958.

Alleoni A.C.C. 2006. Albumen protein and functional properties of gelation and foaming. Journal of Scientia Agricola 63: 291–298. 10.1590/S0103-90162006000300013

Alshaikhi, A.M., Abdullatif, A.A., Badwi, M.A. and Alsobayel, A.A. 2020. Effects of storage period, marketing channels and season on internal and external quality of commercial table eggs marketed in Riyadh city (Saudi Arabia). Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 23(1):1–10. 10.1590/1806-9061-2020-1334

Baharuddin, M., Khaerunnisa, M. and Sappewali. 2020. Characterization of the allergen from egg white with SDS-PAGE. Science & Technology 6(21):28–32.

Banerjee, P., Keener, K.M. and Lukito, V.D. 2011. Influence of carbon dioxide on the activity of chicken egg white lysozyme. Poultry Science 90(4): 889–895. 10.3382/ps.2010-00854

Barać, M.B., Smiljanić, M., Pešić, M.B., Stanojević, S.P., Jovanović, S.T. and Maćej, O.D. 2013. Primary proteolysis of white brined goat cheese monitored by high molarity Tris buffer SDS-PAGE system. Mljekarstvo 63(3):122–131.

Bruwer, M.J., MacGregor, J.F. and Wilfred, M.B. 2007. Fusion of sensory and mechanical testing data to define measures of snack food texture. Journal of Food Quality and Preference 18: 890–900. 10.1016/j.foodqual.2007.03.001

Chaijan, M. 2011. Physicochemical changes of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscle during salting. Journal of Food Chemistry 129: 1201–1210. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.110

Chaiyasit, W., Branan, R.G., Chareonsuk, D. and Chanasattru, W. 2019. Comparison of physicochemical and functional properties of chicken and duck eggs albumens. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 21(1):1–10. 10.1590/1806-9061-2017-0705

Cláudia, A. and Carraro, A. 2006. Albumen protein and functional properties of gelation and foaming. Journal of Scientia Agricola 63: 291–298. 10.1590/S0103-90162006000300013

Department of Agriculture 2005. Microbial in food and quality certification. The Agricultural Cooperative Federation of Thailand printing house/press. Bangkok. http://lib.doa.go.th/multim/e-book/EB00047.pdf (In thai)

Duizer, L. 2001. A review of acoustic research for studying the sensory perception of crisp, crunchy and crackly textures. Journal of Trends in Food Science and Technology 12: 17–24. 10.1016/S0924-2244(01)00050-4

European Commission. 2012. Nutrition claims (Online). Available: https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/labelling_nutrition/claims/nutrition_claims_en (13 June 2018).

Feng, P., Weagant, S.D., Grant, M.A. and Burkhardt, W. 2020. BAM chapter 4: Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the coliform bacteria. In The United States Food and Drug Administration (Org.), Bacteriological analytical manual (Online). Silver Spring: The United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter4-enumeration-escherichia-coli-and-coliform-bacteria

Grashorn, M. 2016. Effect of storage conditions on egg quality. Journal of Lohmann Information 50: 22–27.

Hargitai, R., Mateo, R. and Török, J. 2011. Shell thickness and pore density in relation to shell colouration, female characteristics and environmental factors in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. Journal of Ornithology 152: 589–595. 10.1007/s10336-011-0665-6

Huang, Q., Qiu, N., Ma, M.H., Jin, Y.G., Yang, H., Geng, F. and Sun, S.H. 2012. Rapid communication estimation of egg freshness using S-ovalbumin as an indicator. Journal of Poultry Science 91: 739–743. 10.3382/ps.2011-01639

Jirangrat, W., Damir, D.T., June, N., Hong, K.N. and Witoon, P. 2010. Effects of mineral oil coating on internal quality of chicken eggs under refrigerated storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45: 490–495. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02150.x

Kaewmanee, T., Benjakul, S. and Visessanguan, W. 2009. Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and microstructure of duck egg as influenced by salting. Journal of Food Chemistry 112: 560–569. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.011

Kocetkovs, V., Radenkovs, V., Juhnevica-Radenkova, K. and Muizniece-Brasava, S. 2022. Variation in the fatty acid and amino acid profiles of pasteurized liquid whole hen egg products stored in four types of packaging. Animals 12(21):2990. 10.3390/ani12212990

Lante, A., Lomolino, G., Cagnin, M. and Spettoli, P. 2006. Content and characterisation of minerals in milk and in Crescenza and Squacquerone Italian fresh cheeses by ICP-OES. Journal of Food Control 17: 229–233. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.10.010

Liu, Y.C., Ter-Hsin, C., Ying-Chen, W., Yi-Chain, L. and Fa-ju, T. 2016. Effects of egg washing and storage temperature on the quality of eggshell cuticle and eggs. Journal of Food Chemistry 211: 687–693. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.056

Lomakina, K. and Mikova, K. 2006. A study of the factors affecting the foaming properties of egg white. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 24: 110–118. 10.17221/3305-CJFS

Maysuoka, R., Kurihara, H., Yukawa, H. and Sasahara, R. 2019. Eggshell membrane protein can be absorbed and utilised in the bodies of rat. BMC Research Notes 12(article number 258). 10.1186/s13104-019-4306-0

Mine, Y. and Zhang, H. 2013. Egg components in food systems. In Biochemistry of Foods, 3rd ed., N.A.M. Eskin (Ed.)., Elsevier. Ontario. P.215-241.

Munoz, A., Dominguez-Gasca, N., Jimenez-Lopez, C. and Rodriguez-Navarro, A.B. 2015. Importance of eggshell cuticle composition and maturity for avoiding trans-shell Salmonella contamination in chicken eggs. Journal of Food Control 55: 31–38. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2015.02.028

National Bureau of Thai Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards. 2010a. Hen egg (Online). Available: www.acfs.go.th/standard/download/hen_egg.pdf (21 August 2016).

National Bureau of Thai Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards. 2010b. Duck egg (Online). Available: www.acfs.go.th/standard/download/DUCK_EGG.pdf (21 August 2016).

Nys, Y. and Guyot, N. 2011. 6-Egg formation and chemistry. In Improving the Safety and Quality of Eggs and Egg Products, Y. Nys (Ed.)., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge. P.83-132.

Özer C. and Cansu, A. 2020. The influence of aging egg on foaming properties of different meringue types. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology 19(8):475–484. 10.1080/15428052.2020.1790073

Ramamurthy, T. and Krishnan, S. 2022. Influence of viscosity on the thermal behavior of fluids in a sealed can. Alexandria Engineering Journal 61(10): 7833–7842. 10.1016/j.aej.2022.01.038

Rojas, F.S., Ojeda, C.B. and Pavón, J.M.C. 2019. Spectrophotometry: Biochemical application. In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, 3rd Ed, P. Worsfold, C. Poole, A. Townshend, M. Miró (Eds), Elsevier, B.V., Amsterdam, P. 205–213. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124095472005011

Souza, P.M. and Fernández, A. 2013. Rheological properties and protein quality of UV-C processed liquid egg products. Journal of Food Hydrocolloids 31: 127–134. 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.05.013

Spada, F.P., Gutierrez, É.M.R., Souza, M.C., Brazaca, S.G.C., Lemes, D.E.A., Fischer, F.S., et al. 2012. Viscosity of egg white from hens of different strains fed with commercial and natural additives. Journal of Food Science and Technology (Campinas) 32: 47–51. 10.1590/S0101-20612012005000017

Tallent, S., Hait, J., Bennett, R.W. and Lancette, G.A. 2016. BAM chapter 12: Staphylococcus aureus. In The United States Food and Drug Administration (Org.), Bacteriological analytical manual (Online). Silver Spring: The United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/food/laboratory-methods-food/bam-chapter-12-staphylococcus-aureus

The Poultry Site. 2014. New Digital Haugh Unit Tester Launched (Online). Available: http://www.thepoultrysite.com/poultrynews/32367/new-digital-haugh-unit-tester-launched/ (21 April 2018).

The Nephrology Society of Thailand. 2012. Management of chronic kidney disease patient. Ultra Unionviolet, Bangkok.

The Nephrology Society of Thailand. 2015. Clinical Practice Recommendation for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults, Vol. 59, Oxford Academic, Oxford.

Wang, Y., Wang, Z. and Shan, Y. 2019. Assessment of the relationship between ovomucin and albumen quality of shell eggs during storage. Poultry Science 98(1):473–479. 10.3382/ps/pey349

U.S. Food and Drug Administration.2008. Environmental Sampling and Detection of Salmonella in Poultry Houses (Online). Available: http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/ucm114716.htm (29 January 2016).