A systematic review to introduce the most effective postbiotics derived from probiotics for aflatoxin detoxification in vitro

Main Article Content

Setayesh Zamanpour
Seyyed Mohammad Ali Noori
Behdad Shokrollahi Yancheshmeh
Asma Afshari
Mohammad Hashemi


aflatoxins, cell-free supernatant, killed probiotics, non-viable probiotics, postbiotics


The purpose of this study was to gather information about the percentage of aflatoxin decontamination by postbiotics and to find the most effective postbiotic. In this review article, studies were collected from databases. All the articles related to experimental studies were included in the study. It appeared that the postbiotics derived from Lentilactobacillus kefiri, Lentilactobacillus kefiri, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosum, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosum and Pediococcus pentosaceus probiotic bacteria were the most effective postbiotics with 97.22%, 95.27%, 86.2%, 81.4% and 91% inhibitory effect against aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, respectively. Therefore, postbiotics could be used as safe anti-aflatoxin agents in food products.

Abstract 153 | PDF Downloads 209 HTML Downloads 32 XML Downloads 56


Abbasi, A., Aghebati-Maleki, L. and Homayouni-Rad, A. 2021a. The promising biological role of postbiotics derived from probiotic Lactobacillus species in reproductive health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1–13. 10.1080/10408398.2021.1935701

Abbasi, A., Sheykhsaran, E. and Kafil, H.S. 2021b. Postbiotics: Science, Technology and Applications. Bentham Science, Sharjah, UAE. 10.2174/97816810883891210101

Abdelmotilib, N., Hamad, G., Elderea, H., Salem, E. and Sohaimy, S. 2018. Aflatoxin M1 reduction in milk by a novel combination of probiotic bacterial and yeast strains. Eur J Nutr Food Safety. 8(2): 83–99. 10.9734/EJNFS/2018/39486

Abriouel, H., Muñoz, M.d.C.C., Lerma, L.L., Montoro, B.P., Bockelmann, W., Pichner, R., Kabisch, J., Cho, G-S., Franz, C.M.A.P. and Gálvez, A. 2015. New insights in antibiotic resistance of lactobacillus species from fermented foods. Food Res Int. 78: 465–481. 10.1016/j.foodres.2015.09.016

Adebo, O.A., Njobeh, P.B., Gbashi, S., Nwinyi, O.C. and Mavumengwana, V. 2017. Review on microbial degradation of aflatoxins. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 57(15): 3208–3217. 10.1080/10408398.2015.1106440

Afshar, P., Shokrzadeh, M., Raeisi, S.N., Saraei, A.G.-H. and Nasiraii, L.R. 2020. Aflatoxins biodetoxification strategies based on probiotic bacteria. Toxicon 178: 50–58. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.02.007

Aghebati-Maleki, L., Hasannezhad, P., Abbasi, A. and Khani, N. 2021. Antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of postbiotics: a review of mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives. Biointerface Res Appl Chem. 12: 2629–2645. 10.33263/BRIAC122.26292645

Ahlberg, S.H., Joutsjoki, V. and Korhonen, H.J. 2015. Potential of lactic acid bacteria in aflatoxin risk mitigation. Int J Food Microbiol. 207: 87–102. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.04.042

Ahmadi, E. 2020. Potential public health risk due to consumption of contaminated bovine milk with aflatoxin M1 and Coxiella burnetii in the west of Iran. Int J Dairy Technol. 73(3): 479–485. 10.1111/1471-0307.12687

Alshannaq, A. and Yu, J.-H. 2017. Occurrence, toxicity, and analysis of major mycotoxins in food. Int J Environ Res Public Health 14 (6): 632. 10.3390/ijerph14060632

Amaretti, A., Nunzio, M.D., Pompei, A., Raimondi, S., Rossi, M. and Bordoni, A. 2013. Antioxidant properties of potentially probiotic bacteria: in vitro and in vivo activities. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 97(2): 809–817. 10.1007/s00253-012-4241-7

Ambadoyiannis, G., Hatzikamari, M., Litopoulou-Tzanetaki, E. and Tzanetakis, N. 2004. Probiotic and technological properties of enterococci isolates from infants and cheese. Food Biotechnol. 18(3): 307–325. 10.1081/FBT-200035024

Armando, M.R., R.P. Pizzolitto., C.A. Dogi., A. Cristofolini., C. Merkis., V. Poloni., A.M. Dalcero and L.R. Cavaglieri. 2012. Adsorption of ochratoxin A and zearalenone by potential probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and its relation with cell wall thickness. J Appl Microbiol. 113(2): 256–264. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05331.x

Asif, A., Afzaal, M., Shahid, H., Saeed, F., A. Ahmed., Y. Abbas Shah., A. Ejaz., S. Ghani., H. Ateeq and M.R. Khan. 2023. Probing the functional and therapeutic properties of postbiotics in relation to their industrial application. Food Sci. Nutr. 10.1002/fsn3.3465

Balsini, M.S., Dovom, M.R.E., Kadkhodaee, R., Najafi, M.B.H. and Yavarmanesh, M. 2021. Effect of digestion and thermal processing on the stability of microbial cell-aflatoxin B1 complex. LWT 142: 110994. 10.1016/j.lwt.2021.110994

Battacone, G., Nudda, A., Cannas, A., Borlino, A.C., Bomboi, G. and Pulina, G. 2003. Excretion of aflatoxin M1 in milk of dairy ewes treated with different doses of aflatoxin B1. J Dairy Sci. 86(8): 2667–2675. 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73862-4

Bejaoui, H., Mathieu, F., Taillandier, P. and Lebrihi, A. 2004. Ochratoxin A removal in synthetic and natural grape juices by selected oenological Saccharomyces strains. J Appl Microbiol. 97(5): 1038–1044. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02385.x

Bovo, F., Corassin, C.H., Rosim, R.E. and de Oliveira, C.A.F. 2013. Efficiency of lactic acid bacteria strains for decontamination of aflatoxin M1 in phosphate buffer saline solution and in skimmed milk. Food Bioprocess Technol. 6(8): 2230–2234. 10.1007/s11947-011-0770-9

Bueno, D.J., Casale, C.H., Pizzolitto, T.P., Salvano, M.A. and Oliver, G. 2007. Physical adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a theoretical model. J Food Protect. 70(9): 2148–2154. 10.4315/0362-028X-70.9.2148

Chartier, C., Pierre, M. and Kulakauskas, S. 2006. Aflatoxin M1 absorption and cytotoxicity on human intestinal in vitro model. Toxicon. 47(4): 409–415. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.12.003

Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre and Kulakauskas, S. 2014. Cell wall structure and function in lactic acid bacteria. Microbial Cell Factories 13(1): 1–23. 10.1186/1475-2859-13-S1-S9

Chen, G., Fang, Q., Liao, Z., Xu, C., Liang, Z., Liu, T., Zhong, Q., et al. 2022a. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by a potential probiotic bacillus amyloliquefaciens WF2020. Front Microbiol. 13: 891091. 10.3389/fmicb.2022.891091

Chen, G., Fang, Q., Liao, Z., Xu, C., Liang, Z., Liu, T., Zhong, Q., et al. 2022b. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by a potential probiotic bacillus amyloliquefaciens WF2020. Front Microbiol. 13. 10.3389/fmicb.2022.891091

Chlebicz, A. and Śliżewska, K. 2020. In vitro detoxification of aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, T-2 toxin and zearalenone by probiotic bacteria from genus Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Probiot Antimicrob Prot. 12(1): 289–301. 10.1007/s12602-018-9512-x

Cicenia, A., Santangelo, F., Gambardella, L., Pallotta, L., Iebba, V., Scirocco, A. et al. 2016. Protective role of postbiotic mediators secreted by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus lipopolysaccharide-induced damage in human colonic smooth muscle cells. J Clin Gastroenterol. 50: S140–S144. 10.1097/MCG.0000000000000681

Cruz, P.O., de Matos, C.J., Nascimento, Y.M., Tavares, J.F., de Souza, E.L. and Magalhães, HIF.. 2020. Efficacy of potentially probiotic fruit-derived Lactobacillus fermentum, L. paracasei and L. plantarum to remove aflatoxin M1 in vitro. Toxins. 13(1): 4. 10.3390/toxins13010004

Dalié, D.K.D., Deschamps, A.M. and Richard-Forget, F. 2010. Lactic acid bacteria–potential for control of mould growth and mycotoxins: a review. Food Control. 21(4): 370–380. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2009.07.011

Damayanti, E., Istiqomah, L., Saragih, JE. and Purwoko, T. 2017. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria as poultry probiotic candidates with aflatoxin B1 binding activities. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 10.1088/1755-1315/101/1/012030

Darwish, W.S., Ikenaka, Y., Shouta, M.M.N. and Ishizuka, M. 2014. An overview on mycotoxin contamination of foods in Africa. J Vet Med Sci. 76(6): 789–797. 10.1292/jvms.13-0563

de Almada, C.N., Almada, C.N., Martinez, R.C.R. and Sant’Ana, A.S. 2016. Paraprobiotics: evidences on their ability to modify biological responses, inactivation methods and perspectives on their application in foods. Trends Food Sci Technol. 58: 96–114. 10.1016/j.tifs.2016.09.011

Dhanasekaran, D., Shanmugapriya, S., Thajuddin, N. and Panneerselvam, A. 2011. Aflatoxins and aflatoxicosis in human and animals. Aflat Biochem Mol Biol. 10(22717): 221–254. 10.5772/22717

Dunand, E., Burns, P., Binetti, A., Bergamini, C., Peralta, G.H., Forzani, L., Reinheimer, J. and Vinderola, G. 2019. Postbiotics produced at laboratory and industrial level as potential functional food ingredients with the capacity to protect mice against Salmonella infection. J Appl Microbiol. 127(1): 219–229. 10.1111/jam.14276

Ebrahimi, M., Sadeghi, A., Rahimi, D., Purabdolah, H. and Shahryari, S. 2021. Postbiotic and anti-aflatoxigenic capabilities of Lactobacillus kunkeei as the potential probiotic LAB isolated from the natural honey. Probiot Antimicrob Prot. 13(2): 343–355. 10.1007/s12602-020-09697-w

El-Nezami, H., Kankaanpaa, P., Salminen, S. and Ahokas, J. 1998a. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol. 36(4): 321–326. 10.1016/S0278-6915(97)00160-9

El-Nezami, H., Kankaanpaa, P., Salminen, S. and Ahokas, J. 1998b. Physicochemical alterations enhance the ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to remove aflatoxin from contaminated media. J Food Protect. 61(4): 466–468. 10.4315/0362-028X-61.4.466

El-Nezami, H., Polychronaki, N., Salminen, S. and Mykkaünen, H. 2002. Binding rather than metabolism may explain the interaction of two food-grade Lactobacillus strains with zearalenone and its derivative ɑ́-zearalenol. Appl Environ Microbiol. 68(7): 3545–3549. 10.1128/AEM.68.7.3545-3549.2002

Elsanhoty, R.M., Ramadan, M.W., El-Gohery, S.S., Abol-Ela, M.F. and Azeke, M.A. 2013. Ability of selected microorganisms for removing aflatoxins in vitro and fate of aflatoxins in contaminated wheat during baladi bread baking. Food Control 33(1): 287–292. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.03.002

Elsanhoty, R.M., Salam, S.A., Ramadan, M.F. and Badr, F.H. 2014. Detoxification of aflatoxin M1 in yoghurt using probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. Food Control 43: 129–134. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.03.002

Fahim, K.M., Badr, A.N., Shehata, M.G., Hassanen, E.I. and Ahmed, L.I. 2021. Innovative application of postbiotics, parabiotics and encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum RM1 and Lactobacillus paracasei KC39 for detoxification of aflatoxin M1 in milk powder. J Dairy Res. 88(4): 429–435. 10.1017/S002202992100090X

Fan, K., Wu, J. and Chen, L. 2021. Ultrasound and its combined application in the improvement of microbial and physicochemical quality of fruits and vegetables: a review. Ultrasonics Sonochem. 80: 105838. 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105838

Fernandez J., Guillermina, M., Dalcero, A.M. and Magnoli, C.E. 2015. In vitro aflatoxin B1 binding capacity by two Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from healthy dog faeces. J Appl Microbiol. 118(3): 574–582. 10.1111/jam.12726

Florina, R., Sofia, P., Lia, R., Antoanela, C. and Butnariu, M. 2018. Effect of some probiotic bacteria on the reduction of aflatoxin B1 production in stored arabica coffee beans. Int. Multidiscipl Sci GeoConf SGEM. 18(6.4): 135–142. 10.5593/sgem2018V/6.4/S08.018

Fochesato, A., Silvia, D.C., Poloni, V., Galvagno, M.A., Dogi, C.A. and Cavaglieri, L.R. 2019. Aflatoxin B1 adsorption/desorption dynamics in the presence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC 007 in a gastrointestinal tract-simulated model. J Appl Microbiol. 126(1): 223–229. 10.1111/jam.14101

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 2003. Alimentarius Codex 2003. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Fouad, M.T., El-Shenawy, M. and El-Desouky, T.A. 2021. Efficiency of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from some dairy products on aflatoxin [B. sub. 1] and Ochratoxin A. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 15(1): 312–320. 10.22207/JPAM.15.1.24

Gao, J., Li, Y., Wan, Y., Hu, Y., Liu, L., Yang, S. et al. 2019. A novel post-biotic from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG with a-beneficial effect on intestinal barrier function. Front Microbiol. 10: 477. 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00477

Gao, X., Ma, Q., Zhao, L., Lei, Y., Shan, Y. and Ji, C. 2011. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis: screening for aflatoxins B1, M1 and G1 detoxification. Eur Food Res Technol. 232(6): 957–962. 10.1007/s00217-011-1463-3

Gelmetti, C., Rigoni, C., Cantù, A.M., Agolzer, A., Agrusa, A., Brena, M. et al. 2022. Topical prebiotics/-postbiotics and PRURISCORE validation in atopic dermatitis. International study of 396 patients. J Dermatol Treat. 1–8. 10.1080/09546634.2022.2131703

Gerbaldo, G.A., Barberis, C., Pascual, L., Dalcero, A. and Barberis, L. 2012. Antifungal activity of two Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic properties. FEMS Microbiol Let. 332(1): 27–33. 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2012.02570.x

Ghofrani, T., Damoon, H.K., Golian, A. and Heravi, R.H. 2018. In vitro binding potentials of bentonite, yeast cell wall and lactic acid bacteria for aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A. Iran J Toxicol. 12(2): 7–13. 10.29252/arakmu.12.2.7

Gourama, H. and Bullerman, L.B. 1995. Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus by Lactobacillus species. J Food Protect. 58(11): 1249–1256. 10.4315/0362-028X-58.11.1249

Gratz, S.W., Mykkanen, H. and El-Nezami, H.S. 2010. Probiotics and gut health: a special focus on liver diseases. World J Gastro-enterol (WJG). 16(4): 403. 10.3748/wjg.v16.i4.403

Hamidi, A., Mirnejad, R., Yahaghi, E., Behnod, V., Mirhosseini, A., Amani, S., Sattari, S. and Darian, E.K. 2013. The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria. Asian Pacific J Trop Biomed. 3(9): 732–736. 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60147-1

Haskard, C.A., El-Nezami, H.S., Kankaanpää, P.E., Salminen, S. and Ahokas, J.T. 2001. Surface binding of aflatoxin B1 by lactic acid bacteria. Applied Environ Microbiol. 67(7): 3086–3091. 10.1128/AEM.67.7.3086-3091.2001

Haskard, C., Binnion, C. and Ahokas, J. 2000. Factors affecting the sequestration of aflatoxin by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Chem Biol Interactions. 128(1): 39–49. 10.1016/S0009-2797(00)00186-1

Hegazy, E.M., Sadek, Z.I., El-Shafei, K. and El-Khalek, A.B.A. 2011. Aflatoxins binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. boulardii in functional cereal based ice-cream. Life Sci J (Acta Zhengzhou University Overseas Ed). 8(4): 75–81.

Hernandez-Mendoza, A., Garcia, H.S. and Steele, J.L. 2009a. Screening of Lactobacillus casei strains for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol. 47(6): 1064–1068. 10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.042

Hernandez-Mendoza, A., Guzman-De-Peña, D., González-Córdova, A.F., Vallejo-Córdoba, B. and Garcia, H.G. 2010. In vivo assessment of the potential protective effect of Lactobacillus casei Shirota against aflatoxin B1. Dairy Sci Technol. 90(6): 729–740. 10.1051/dst/2010030

Hernandez-Mendoza, A., Guzman-de-Peña, D. and Garcia, H.S. 2009b. Key role of teichoic acids on aflatoxin B1 binding by probiotic bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 107(2): 395–403. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04217.x

Homayouni-Rad, A., Fathi-Zavoshti, H., Douroud, N., Shahbazi, N. and Abbas, A. 2020. Evaluating the role of postbiotics as a new generation of probiotics in health and diseases. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 19(4): 381–399. 10.29252/jarums.19.4.381

Homayouni-Rad, A., Oroojzadeh, P. and Abbasi, A. 2021. The effect of yeast kluyveromyces marxianus as a probiotic on the microbiological and sensorial properties of set yoghurt during refrigerated storage. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 20(2): 254–268. 10.52547/jarums.20.2.254

Huang, Li., Duan, C., Zhao, Y., Gao, L., Niu, C., Xu, J. and Li, S. 2017. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 toxicity by Lactobacillus plantarum C88: a potential probiotic strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food tofu. PloS One. 12(1): e0170109. 10.1371/journal.pone.0170109

Ismail, A., Levin, R.E., Riaz, M., Akhtar, S., Gong, Y.Y. and de Oliveira, C.A.F. 2017. Effect of different microbial concentrations on binding of aflatoxin M1 and stability testing. Food Control. 73: 492–496. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.08.040

Izuddin, W.I., Loh, T.C., Samsudin, A.A. and Foo, H.L. 2018. In vitro study of postbiotics from Lactobacillus plantarum RG14 on rumen fermentation and microbial population. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 47. 10.1590/rbz4720170255

Ji, C., Fan, F. and Zhao, L. 2016. Review on biological degradation of mycotoxins. Animal Nutr. 2(3): 127–133. 10.1016/j.aninu.2016.07.003

Kabak, B. and Var, I. 2008. Factors affecting the removal of aflatoxin M1 from food model by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. J Environ Sci Health B. 43(7): 617–624. 10.1080/03601230802234740

Karazhiyan, H., Mehraban, S.M., Karazhyan, R., Mehrzad, A. and Haghighi, E. 2016. Ability of different treatments of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to surface bind aflatoxin M1 in yoghurt.

Khizer, Z., Sadia, A., Sharma, R., Farhaj, S., Nirwan, S.J., Kakadia, P.G., Hussain, T., Yousaf, A.M., Shahzad, Y. and Conway, B.R. 2021. Drug delivery approaches for managing overactive bladder (Oab): a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals. 14(5): 409. 10.3390/ph14050409

Khosravi-Darani, K., Zoghi, A., Jazayeri, S. and da Cruz, A.G. 2020. Decontamination of aflatoxins with a focus on aflatoxin B1 by probiotic bacteria and yeasts: a review. J Microbiol Biotechnol Food Sci. 10(3): 424–435. 10.15414/jmbfs.2020.10.3.424-435

Kim, M.J., Ku, S., Kim, S.Y., Lee, H.H., Jin, H., Kang, S., Li, R. et al. 2018. Safety evaluations of Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 and Bifidobacterium longum BORI. Int J Mol Sci. 19(5): 1422. 10.3390/ijms19051422

Kiran, F., Demirhan, H.K., Haliscelik, O. and Zatari, D. 2023. Metabolic profiles of Weissella spp. postbiotics with-anti-microbial and anti-oxidant effects. J Inf Develop Count. 17(04): 507–517. 10.3855/jidc.16921

Kosztik, J., Mörtl, M., Székács, A., Kukolya, J. and Bata-Vidács, I. 2020. Aflatoxin B1 and sterigmatocystin binding potential of lactobacilli. Toxins 12(12): 756. 10.3390/toxins12120756

Kumar, P., Mahato, D.K., Kamle, M., Mohanta, T.K. and Kang, S.G. 2017. Aflatoxins: a global concern for food safety, human health and their management. Front Microbiol. 7: 2170. 10.3389/fmicb.2016.02170

Laciakova, A.N.N.A., Cicooova, P., Mate, D. and Laciak, V. 2008. Aflatoxins and possibilities for their biological detoxification. Medycyna Weterynaryjna 64(3): 276–279.

Lahtinen, S.J., Haskard, C.A., Ouwehand, A.C., Salminen, S.J. and Ahokas, J.T. 2004. Binding of aflatoxin B1 to cell wall components of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Food Additives Contam. 21(2): 158–164. 10.1080/02652030310001639521

Lee, Y.K., El-Nezami, H., Haskard, C.A., Gratz, S., Puong, K.Y., Salminen, S. and Mykkänen, H. 2003. Kinetics of adsorption and desorption of aflatoxin B1 by viable and nonviable bacteria. J Food Protect. 66(3): 426–430. 10.4315/0362-028X-66.3.426

Liew, W.-P.-P., Nurul-Adilah, Z., Than, L.T.L. and Mohd-Redzwan, S. 2018. The binding efficiency and interaction of Lactobacillus casei Shirota toward aflatoxin B1. Front Microbiol. 9: 1503. 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01503

Liong, M.-T. 2008. Safety of probiotics: translocation and-infection. Nutr Rev. 66(4): 192–202. 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00024.x

Lizárraga-Paulín, E.G., Moreno-Martínez, E. and Miranda-Castro, S.P. 2011. Aflatoxins and their impact on human and animal health: an emerging problem. Aflatoxins Biochem Mol Biol. 13: 255–262. 10.5772/26196

Luo, Y., Liu, X. and Li, J. 2018. Updating techniques on controlling mycotoxins–a review. Food Control 89: 123–132. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.01.016

Fashandi, H.M., Abbasi, R. and Khaneghah, A.M. 2018. The detoxification of aflatoxin M1 by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp.: a review. J Food Proces Preserv. 42(9): e13704. 10.1111/jfpp.13704

Maragos, C.M. 2008. Extraction of aflatoxins B1 and G1 from maize by using aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate. J AOAC Int. 91(4): 762–767. 10.1093/jaoac/91.4.762

Marchese, S., Polo A., Ariano, A., Velotto, A., Costantini, S. and Severino, L. 2018. Aflatoxin B1 and M1: biological properties and their involvement in cancer development. Toxins 10(6): 214. 10.3390/toxins10060214

Martinez, M.P., Magnoli, A.P., Pereyra, M.L.G. and Cavaglieri, L. 2019. Probiotic bacteria and yeasts adsorb aflatoxin M1 in milk and degrade it to less toxic AFM1-metabolites. Toxicon 172: 1–7. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.09.020

Martins, M.L., Martins, H.M. and Bernardo, F. 2001. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal. Food Addit Contam. 18(4): 315–319. 10.1080/02652030120041

Moghaddam, A.F., Sarlak, Z. and Hosseini, H. 2019. Application of probiotics in aflatoxins risk reduction in foods: a review. Int J Environ Sci Natural Res. 22(3): 88–96. 10.19080/IJESNR.2019.22.556087

Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M., Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., Shekelle, P. and Stewart, L.A. 2015. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst Rev. 4(1): 1–9. 10.1186/2046-4053-4-1

Mokoena, M.P., Chelule, P.K. and Gqaleni, N. 2006. The toxicity and decreased concentration of aflatoxin B1 in natural lactic acid fermented maize meal. J Appl Microbiol. 100(4): 773–777. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02881.x

Montaseri, H., Arjmandtalab, S., Dehghanzadeh, G., Karami, S., Razmjoo, M.M., Sayadi, M. and Oryan, A. 2014. Effect of production and storage of probiotic yogurt on aflatoxin M1 residue. J Food Quality Hazards Control 1(1): 7–14.

Moradi, M., Molaei, R. and Guimarães, J.T. 2021. A review on preparation and chemical analysis of postbiotics from lactic acid bacteria. Enzyme Microbial Technol. 143: 109722. 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2020.109722

Nassar, W.S., Elbarbary, H.A., Ibrahim, E., Mohammed, H.A. and Ibrahim, M.I.M. 2018. A new trial in Egypt to detoxify AFM1 in UHT milk by lactobacilli and their bacteriocins. Alexandria J Vet Sci. 59(1): 60–67. 10.5455/ajvs.299013

Oatley, J.T., Rarick, M.D., Ji, G.E. and Linz, J.E. 2000. Binding of aflatoxin B1 to bifidobacteria in vitro. J Food Protect. 63(8): 1133–1136. 10.4315/0362-028X-63.8.1133

Okeke, C.A., Ezekiel, C.N., Nwangburuka, C.C., Sulyok, C., Ezeamagu, C.O., Adeleke, R.A., Dike, S.K. and Krska, R. 2015. Bacterial diversity and mycotoxin reduction during maize fermentation (steeping) for ogi production. Front Microbiol. 6: 1402. 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01402

Oliveira, C.A.F., Bovo, F., Corassin, C.H., Jager, A.V. and Reddy, K.R. 2013. Recent trends in microbiological decontamination of aflatoxins in foodstuffs. Aflatoxins Recent Adv Future Prospects 1: 59–62. 10.5772/51120

Ondiek, W., Wang, Y., Sun, L., Zhou, L., On, S.L.W., Zheng, H. and Ravi, G. 2022. Removal of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin by bacteria isolated from commercially available probiotic dairy foods. Food Sci Technol Int. 28(1): 15–25. 10.1177/1082013220987916

Page, M.J., McKenzie, J.E., Bossuyt, P.M., Boutron, I., Hoffmann, T.C., Mulrow, C.D., Shamseer, L. et al. 2021. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 10(1): 1–11. 10.1016/j.ijsu.2021.105906

Peltonen, K., El-Nezami, H., Haskard, C., Ahokas, J. and Salminen, S. 2001. Aflatoxin B1 binding by dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. J Dairy Sci. 84(10): 2152–2156. 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74660-7

Peng, Z., Chen, L., Zhu, Y., Huang, Y., Hu, X., Wu, Q., Nüssler, A.K., Liu, L. and Yang, W. 2018. Current major degradation methods for aflatoxins: A review. Trends Food Sci Technol. 80: 155–166. 10.1016/j.tifs.2018.08.009

Pfliegler, W.P., Pusztahelyi, T. and Pócsi, I. 2015. Mycotoxins–-prevention and decontamination by yeasts. J Basic Microbio. 55(7): 805–818. 10.1002/jobm.201400833

Pickova, D., Ostry, V. and Malir, F. 2021. A recent overview of producers and important dietary sources of aflatoxins. Toxins 13(3): 186. 10.3390/toxins13030186

Pierides, M., El-Nezami, H., Peltonen, K., Salminen, S. and Ahokas, J. 2000. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind aflatoxin M1 in a food model. J Food Prot. 63(5): 645–650. 10.4315/0362-028X-63.5.645

Piqué, N., Berlanga, M. and Miñana-Galbis, D. 2019. Health benefits of heat-killed (tyndallized) probiotics: an overview. Int J Mol Sci. 20(10): 2534. 10.3390/ijms20102534

Pizzolitto, R.P., Salvano, M.A. and Dalcero, A.M. 2012. Analysis of fumonisin B1 removal by microorganisms in co-occurrence with aflatoxin B1 and the nature of the binding process. Int J Food Microbiol. 156(3): 214–221. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.03.024

Pop, O.L., Suharoschi, R. and Gabbianelli, R. 2022. Biodetoxification and protective properties of probiotics. Microorganisms 10(7): 1278. 10.3390/microorganisms10071278

Rad, A.H., Abbasi, A., Javadi, A., Pourjafar, H., Javadi, M. and Khaleghi, M. 2020a. Comparing the microbial quality of traditional and industrial yoghurts. Biointerface Res Appl Chem. 10(4): 6020–6025. 10.33263/BRIAC104.020025

Rad, A.H., Abbasi, A., Kafil, H.S. and Ganbarov, K. 2020b. Potential pharmaceutical and food applications of postbiotics: a review. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 21(15): 1576–1587. 10.2174/1389201021666200516154833

Rad, A.H., Aghebati-Maleki, L., Kafil, H.S. and Abbasi, A. 2021a. Molecular mechanisms of postbiotics in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 61(11): 1787–1803. 10.1080/10408398.2020.1765310

Rad, A.H., Maleki, A.L., Kafil, H.S., Zavoshti, H.F. and Abbasi, A. 2020c. Postbiotics as novel health-promoting ingredients in functional foods. Health Promotion Perspect. 10(1): 3–4. 10.15171/hpp.2020.02

Rad, A.H., Maleki, A.L., Kafil, H.S., Zavoshti, H.F. and Abbasi, A. 2021b. Postbiotics as promising tools for cancer adjuvant therapy. Adv Pharm Bulletin. 11(1): 1. 10.34172/apb.2021.007

Rahaei, S., Razavi, S.H. and Emam, J.Z. 2010. The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in aflatoxin reduction in pistachio nuts. 10.1590/S1517-83822010000100014

Rahaie, S., Emam-Djomeh, Z., Razavi, S.H. and Mazaheri, M. 2010. Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential aflatoxin decontaminating agent in pistachio nuts. Brazil J Microbiol. 41: 82–90. 10.1590/S1517-83822010000100014

Rao, K.R., Vipin, A,V., Hariprasad, P., Appaiah, K.A.A. and Venkateswaran, G.J.F.C. 2017. Biological detoxification of-aflatoxin B1 by Bacillus licheniformis CFR1. Food Control 71: 234–241. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.06.040

Saeidi, A.S.L. and Safari, R. 2010. Inhibitory effect of saccharomyces cerevisiae on G1 and G2 aflatoxins in culture media and kilka fish meal.

Salminen, S., Collado, M.C., Endo, A., Hill, C., Lebeer, S., Quigley, E.M.M., Sanders, M.E., Shamir, R., Swann, J.R. and Szajewska, H. 2021. The International Scientific Association of Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of postbiotics. Nature Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 18(9): 649–667. 10.1038/s41575-021-00440-6

Sarlak, Z., Rouhi, M., Mohammadi, R., Khaksar, R., Mortazavian, A.M., Sohrabvandi, S. and Garavand, F. 2017. Probiotic biological strategies to decontaminate aflatoxin M1 in a traditional Iranian fermented milk drink (Doogh). Food Control 71: 152–159. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.06.037

Serrano-Niño, J.C., Cavazos-Garduño, A., Hernandez-Mendoza, A., Applegate, B., Ferruzzi, M.G., Martin-González, M.F.S and García, H.S. 2013. Assessment of probiotic strains ability to reduce the bioaccessibility of aflatoxin M1 in artificially contaminated milk using an in vitro digestive model. Food Control 31(1): 202–207. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2012.09.023

Shenderov, B.A. 2013. Metabiotics: novel idea or natural development of probiotic conception. Microbial Ecol Health Dis. 24(1): 20399. 10.3402/mehd.v24i0.20399

Shetty, P.H. and Jespersen, L. 2006. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria as potential mycotoxin decontaminating agents. Trends Food Sci Technol. 17(2): 48–55. 10.1016/j.tifs.2005.10.004

Shigwedha, N. 2014. Probiotical cell fragments (PCFs) as novel nutraceutical ingredients. J Biosci Med. 2(03): 43. 10.4236/jbm.2014.23007

Singh, A., Vishwakarma, V. and Singhal, B. 2018. Metabiotics: the functional metabolic signatures of probiotics: current state-of-art and future research priorities—metabiotics: probiotics effector molecules. Adv Biosc Biotechnol. 9(4): 147–189. 10.4236/abb.2018.94012

Sklan, D., lipper, E., Friedman, A., Shelly, M. and Makovsky, B. 2001. The effect of chronic feeding of diacetoxyscirpenol, T–2 toxin and aflatoxin on performance, health and antibody production in chicks. J Appl Poultry Res. 10(1): 79–85. 10.1093/japr/10.1.79

Śliżewska, K and Smulikowska, S. 2011. Detoxification of aflatoxin B. J Animal Feed Sci. 20: 300–309. 10.22358/jafs/66187/2011

Swoboda, J.G., Campbell, J., Meredith, T.C. and Walker, S. 2010. Wall teichoic acid function, biosynthesis and inhibition. Chembiochem 11(1): 35–45. 10.1002/cbic.200900557

Taheur, F.B., Fedhila, K., Chaieb, K., Kouidhi, B., Bakhrouf, A. and Abrunhosa, L. 2017. Adsorption of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A by microorganisms isolated from Kefir grains. Int J Food Microbiol. 251: 1–7. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2017.03.021

Taheur, F.B., Mansour, C., Kouidhi, B. and Chaieb, K. 2019. Use of lactic acid bacteria for the inhibition of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius growth and mycotoxin production. Toxicon 166: 15–23. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.05.004

Taheura, F.B., Mansoura, C. and Mzoughia, R. 2021. Biocontrol potential of Lactobacillus kefiri probiotic strain against Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in almonds.

Tarsilla, M. 2010. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. J Multidiscipl Eval. 6(14): 142–148. 10.56645/jmde.v6i14.284

Tenea, G.N. and Barrigas, A. 2018. The efficacy of bacteriocin-containing cell-free supernatant from Lactobacillus plantarum Cys5-4 to control pathogenic bacteria growth in artisanal beverages. Int Food Res J. 25(5): 2031–2037.

Thorakkattu, P., Khanashyam, A.C., Shah, K., Babu, K.S., Mundanat, A.S., Deliephan, A., Deokar, G.S., Santivarangkna, C. and Nirmal, N.P. 2022. Postbiotics: current trends in food and pharmaceutical industry. Foods 11(19): 3094. 10.3390/foods11193094

Tomar, S.K., Anand, S., Sharma, P., Sangwan, V. and Mandal, S. 2015. Role of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics and postbiotics in inhibition of pathogens. The battle against microbial pathogens: Basic Science, Technological Advances and Educational Programs; Méndez-Vilas, A., Ed: 717–732.

Topcu, A., Bulat, T., Wishah, R. and Boyacı, I.H. 2010. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and patulin by Enterococcus faecium strains. Int. J Food Microbiol. 139(3): 202–205. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.03.006

Vinderola, G., Ellen Sanders, M. and Salminen, S. 2022. The concept of postbiotics. Foods 11(8): 1077. 10.3390/foods11081077

Vosough, P.R., Sani, A.M., Sangatash, M.M. and Karazhyan, R. 2013. Assessing the ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG to bind aflatoxin B.

Vosough, P.R., Sani, A.M., Sangatash, M.M. and Karazhyan, R. 2014. In vitro effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on reduction of aflatoxin B1. Nutr Food Sci.

Walhe, R., Khan, H. and Kumari, S. 2022. From probiotics to postbiotics: key to microbiome and health. In: Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 367–381. 10.1007/978-981-16-1626-6_18

Wu, Q., Jezkova, A., Yuan, Z., Pavlikova, L., Dohnal, V. and Kuca, K. 2009. Biological degradation of aflatoxins. Drug Metabolism Rev. 41(1): 1–7. 10.1080/03602530802563850

Yu, J., Payne, G.A., Campbell, B.C., Guo, B., Cleveland, T.E., Robens, J.F., Keller, N.P., Bennett, J.W. and Nierman, W.C. 2008. Mycotoxin production and prevention of aflatoxin contamination in food and feed. Aspergilli Genomics Med Aspects Biotechnol Res Methods 457–472. 10.1201/9781420008517.ch27

Zain, M.E. 2011. Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. J Saudi Chem Soc. 15(2): 129–144. 10.1016/j.jscs.2010.06.006

Zhao, H., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Zhang, J. and Zhang, B. 2016. The mechanism of Lactobacillus strains for their ability to remove fumonisins B1 and B2. Food Chem Toxicol. 97: 40–46. 10.1016/j.fct.2016.08.028

Zhong, Y., Wang, T., Luo, R., Liu, J., Jin, R. and Peng, X. 2022. Recent advances and potentiality of postbiotics in the food industry: Composition, inactivation methods, current applications in metabolic syndrome and future trends. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1–25. 10.1080/10408398.2022.2158174

Zhou, G., Chen, Y., Kong, Q., Ma, Y. and Liu, Y. 2017. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with solid state fermentation in peanut meal. Toxins 9(1): 42. 10.3390/toxins9010042

Zolfaghari, H., Khezerlou, A., Ehsani, A. and Khosroushahi, A.Y. 2020. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by probiotic yeasts and bacteria isolated from dairy products of Iran. Adv Pharm Bulletin 10(3): 482. 10.34172/apb.2020.060

Zychowski, K.E., Hoffmann, A.R., Ly, H.J., Pohlenz, C., Buentello, A., Romoser, A., Gatlin, D.M. and Phillips, T.D. 2013. The effect of aflatoxin-B1 on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and assessment of dietary supplementation of NovaSil for the prevention of aflatoxicosis. Toxins 5(9): 1555–1573. 10.3390/toxins5091555