Grape-based traditional foods produced in Turkey

Main Article Content

Simge Aktop
Pınar Şanlıbaba
Yalçın Güçer

Keywords

grapes, process, traditional foods, Turkey

Abstract

Turkey is considered the gene centre of the vine, and it has remained one of the most important trading centres of viticulture and grape-based foods for a long time. The grapes grown in Anatolia and the foods obtained by processing these grapes contribute greatly to the economy of the nation. In addition to economic outcomes, grape-based traditional foods provide anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardiovascular disease–preventing benefits when consumed. A few examples of these grape-based traditional foods are molasses, wine, Turkish Rakı, hardaliye and pestil. In this review, the production processes of certain grape-based Turkish traditional foods are summarized.

Abstract 739 | PDF Downloads 628 HTML Downloads 81 XML Downloads 183

References

Ademoğlu, A. and Özkaya, F.D., 2021. Özel gün ve tören yemekleri: ethnic foods dergisi üzerine bir inceleme. Journal of Gastronomy, Hospitality and Travel 4(2): 248–257. 10.33083/joghat.2021.72

Adınır, M., 2011. Utilization as pickle of unripe grapes (V. vinifera) on grapevine picked brined-vine leaves. MSc Thesis, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Akdeniz, B., 2011. Geleneksel usullerde sultani çekirdeksiz üzüm çeşidinin kurutulması. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi 6(1): 13–22.

Aktaç, Ş., Hasköylü, A. and Güneş, F.E., 2015. Nutritional properties of hardaliye. In: 3rd International Symposium on “Traditional Foods from Adriatic to Caucasus”, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1–4 October 2015.

Alçay, A.Ü., Yalçin, S., Bostan, K. and Dinçel, E., 2015. Orta Asya’dan Anadolu’ya kurutulmuş gıdalar. Anadolu Bil. MYO Dergisi 37: 83–93.

Altay, F., Karbancıoglu-Güler, F., Daskaya-Dikmen, C. and Heperkan, D., 2013. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics. International Journal of Food Microbiology 167(1): 44–56. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.06.016

Altundağ, Ö.Ö., Kenger, E.B. and Ulu, E.K., 2020. Farklı Tarhana Türlerinin Sağlık Yönünden Değerlendirilmesine Yönelik Bir Çalışma. Sağlık Akademisi Kastamonu 5(2): 143–157. 10.25279/sak.458051

Amoutzopoulos, B., Löker, G.B., Samur, G., Çevikkalp, S.A., Yaman, M., Köse, T., et al., 2013. Effects of a traditional fermented grape-based drink ‘hardaliye’ on antioxidant status of healthy adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93(14): 3604–3610. 10.1002/jsfa.6158

Anlı, R.E., 2022. Şarap Üretimi. Fermantasyon Teknolojisi. Available at: https://acikders.ankara.edu.tr/pluginfile.php/7323/mod_resource/content/0/FERM.F.REA.8.%20hafta.pdf (accessed 4 September 2022).

Anli, R.E. and Bayram, M., 2010. Traditional aniseed-flavored spirit drinks. Food Reviews International 26(3): 246–269. 10.1080/87559129.2010.484115

Anli, R.E., Vural, N. and Gucer, Y., 2007. Determination of the principal volatile compounds of Turkish Raki. Journal of the Institute of Brewing 113(3): 302–309. 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2007.tb00290.x

Anonymous, 2021. English map of Turkey regions. Available at: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Turkey_Regions_map-en.svg (accessed 4 September 2021).

Arici, M. and Coskun, F., 2001. Hardaliye: fermented grape juice as a traditional Turkish beverage. Food Microbiology 18: 417–421. 10.1006/fmic.2001.0413

Aşkın, B., 2018. Farklı sıcaklıkların hardaliyenin depolama stabilitesi üzerine etkisi. Harran Journal of Agricultural Food Science 23(1): 13–21. 10.29050/harranziraat.409434

Aydoğdu, H., Yıldırım, Ş., Halkman, A.K. and Durgun, T., 2014. A study on production and quality criteria of hardaliye; a traditional drink from thrace region of Turkey. Gıda 39 (3):139–145.

Aytunç, R. and Özsisli, B., 2020. Determination of some properties of the traditional Maras tarhana produced by tempered corn addition. Turkish Journal of Food and Agricultural Science 8(5): 1067–1073. 10.24925/turjaf.v8i5.1067-1073.3273

Bahar, E., Korkutal, İ. and Hüseyin, Ö., 2018. Bağcılıkta terroir unsurları. Bahçe 47(2): 57–70.

Barbaros, B. and Kabaran, S., 2014. Akdeniz diyeti ve sağlığı koruyucu etkileri. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi 42(2): 140–147.

Batu, A., 2006. Klasik ve Modern Yönteme Göre Sıvı ve Beyaz Katı Üzüm Pekmezi (Zile Pekmezi) Üretimi. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi 2006(2): 9–26.

Batu, A., 2020. Gastronomi ve Moleküler Gastronomi Açısından Üzüm Pekmezi. Aydın Gastronomy 4(1): 35–44.

Batu, A. and Gök, V., 2006. Pekmez üretiminde HACCP uygulaması. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi 3(7): 1–18.

Batu, A., Kaya, C., Çatak, J. and Şahin, C., 2007. Pestil üretim tekniği. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi 1: 71–81.

Bayındır, M.S. and Önçel, S., 2019. Gastronomide kültürel miras bakış açısıyla Kırklareli hardaliyesi’nin geleneksel üretiminin değerlendirilmesi. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies 7(3): 1867–1886. 10.21325/jotags.2019.453

Bayram, H.U., 2018. Determine production methods and quality parameters of Gumushane Pestil and Kome. MSc Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Bayram, M., Esin, Y., Kaya, C., İlhan, M., Akın, G. and Etdöğer, R., 2015. Geleneksel Yöntemle Müşküle Üzümünden Üretilen Hardaliyenin Bazı Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi. Academic Food Journal 13(2): 119–126.

Becerikli, F., 2015. Determination of physical, chemical and microbiologic properties of koftur is a traditional food in Turkey. MSc Thesis, Uludag University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Becerikli, F. and Başoğlu, F., 2018. Geleneksel Ürünlerimizden Olan Köftürün Bazı Biyoaktif, Fizikokimyasal ve Kimyasal Özellikleri. Gıda 43(2): 356–363. 10.15237/gida.GD17085

Bekar, T., 2016. Şaraplık üzüm kalitesi üzerine yetiştiriciliğin etkileri. Türk Tarım ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi 3(4): 255–264.

Bergama, D., 2017. Effect of fractionation and triple pot still distillation on the aroma compounds of distillates during raki production. MSc Thesis, Cukurova University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Bilişli, A., 2013. Üzüm pekmezi. In: Özel Gıdalar, Bilişli, A (eds.) Sidas Medya, İzmir, Turkey. ISBN: 978–605–5267–13–1.

Bulut-Solak, B., 2021. Food, nutrition, and health in Turkey, the European part. In: Gostin, A.I., Bogueva, D. and Kakurinov, V. (eds.) In: Nutritional and health aspects of food in the Balkans. Academic Press, Elsevier Publishing, pp. 263–278. 10.1016/B978-0-12-820782-6.00008-6

Cabaroglu, T. and Yilmaztekin, M., 2011. Methanol and major volatile compounds of Turkish Raki and effect of distillate source. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 117(1): 98–105. 10.1002/j.2050-0416.2011.tb00449.x

Cagindi, O. and Otles, S., 2005. Comparison of some properties on different types of pestil: a traditional product in Turkey. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 40: 897–901. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.00962.x

Cangi, R. and Yağcı, A., 2012. Iğdır yöresinde salamuralık asma yaprağı üretim imkanları. Journal of the Institute of Science and Technology 2(2 Sp:A): 9–14.

Cangi, R., Yanar, Y. and Dülgeroğlu, Y., 2012. The effect of harvest period and brining methods on fungicide residue levels in brined vine leaves production. Final Reports, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Scientific Research Projects Commission.

Cangi, R., Yıldız, M., Yağcı, A. and Kaya, C., 2011. Tokat’tan Geleneksel Bir Lezzet Üzüm Tarhanası. In: 6th Ulusal Bahçe Bitkileri Kongresi, Şanlıurfa, Turkey, 4–8 October 2011, pp. 100–103.

Ciani, M., Beco, L. and Comitini, F., 2006. Fermentation behaviour and metabolic interactions of multistarter wine yeast fermentations. International Journal of Food Microbiology 108(2): 239–245. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2005.11.012

Coskun, F., 2017. A traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic grape-based beverage, “Hardaliye”. Beverages 3(1): 2. 10.3390/beverages3010002

Coşkun, F., 2014. Tarhananın tarihi ve Türkiye’de tarhana çeşitleri. Gıda Teknolojileri Elektronik Dergisi. 9 (3):69–79.

Çağlayan, H., 2018. Effect of pumpkin and raisin addition on some quality characteristics of probiotic yoghurts. MSc Thesis, Hitit University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Çam, T. and Yıldırım, H.K., 2018. Üzümsü meyvelerdeki fenolik bileşiklerin fermantasyon ile değişimi. Akademik Gıda 16(1): 101–108. 10.24323/akademik-gida.417902

De Matos, A.D., Curioni, A., Bakalinsky, A.T., Marangon, M., Pasini, G. and Vincenzi, S., 2017. Chemical and sensory analysis of verjuice: an acidic food ingredient obtained from unripe grape berries. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 44: 9–14. 10.1016/j.ifset.2017.09.014

Dolgun, E.C., Karaca, G. and Aktaş, M., 2020. Performance analysis of infrared film drying of grape pomace using energy and exergy methodology. International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 118: 104827. 10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2020.104827

Dumanoğlu, B., 2021. Moisture sorption isotherm, thermodynamic properties and kinetic stability of encapsulated propolis powder. MSc Thesis, Aydın Adnan Menderes University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Ellison, R.C., 2011. The French paradox: 20 years later. Journal of Wine Research 22(2): 105–108, 10.1080/09571264.2011.603214

Erdoğan, A., Gürses, M. and Sert, S., 2003. Erzurum’da Satışa Sunulan Köme (Cevizli Pestil Sucuğu) ve Kuru İncirlerin Aflatoksin İçeriklerinin Saptanması. Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 34(1): 85–88.

Ergezer, H., Gökçe, R. and Akcan, T., 2018. Koruk Sularının Bazı Kalite Karakteristikleri Üzerine Pastörizasyon ve Potasyum Sorbat İlavesinin Etkisi. Akademik Gıda 16(3): 287–292. 10.24323/akademik-gida.475352

Ferrie`res, J., 2004. The French paradox: lessons for other countries. Heart, 90(1): 107–111.heart.90.1.107

Ghahremani, H. and Salami, S., 2021. French paradox, alcohol, and health related concerns. International Journal of Cancer Management 14(7): e105006. 10.5812/ijcm.105006

Goksel, M., Dogan, M., Toker, O.S., Ozgen, S., Sarioglu, K. and Oral, R.A., 2013. The effect of starch concentration and temperature on grape molasses: rheological and textural properties. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6(1): 259–271. 10.1007/s11947-011-0705-5

Gucer, Y., Aydogdu, H. and Durgun, T., 2009. A traditional Thracian beverage; “Hardaliye”. Trakia Journal of Sciences 7: 208–210.

Gucer, Y., Poyrazoglu, E.S. and Artik, N., 2021. GC/MS determination of volatile aromatic compounds of Kalecik Karasi must produce by cold maceration. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University 36(3): 1532–1538. 10.17341/gazimmfd.719047

Gülcü, M., 2010. Traditional grape products of Thracian region and local production form in Turkey. In: 33 rd World Congress of vine and wine, Tbilisi, Georgia, 20–27 June 2010.

Gülcü, M. and Demirci, A.Ş., 2009. Tekirdağ Yöresinde Üretilen Katı Pekmez “Bulama” Üzerine Bir Araştırma. In: II. Geleneksel Gıdalar Sempozyumu, Van, Turkey, 27–29 May 2009, pp. 86–91.

Gülcü, M., Demirci, A.Ş., Arıcı, M. and Aydın, S., 2009. Yemeklik asma yaprağı üretimi. In: II. Geleneksel Gıdalar Sempozyumu, Van, Turkey, 27–29 May 2009.

Gülcü, M. and Torçuk, A.İ., 2016. Yemeklik asma yaprağı üretimi ve pazarlamasında kalite parametreleri. Meyve Bilimi 1: 75–79.

Gülgör, G. and Korukluoğlu, M., 2015Şarap Kalitesinin Geliştirilmesinde Brettanomyces Türlerinin Killer Toksinler ile Engellenmesi. Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 29(2): 183–192.

Hayoglu, I., Kola, O., Kaya, C., Özer, S. and Turkoglu, H., 2009. Chemical and sensory properties of verjuice, a traditional Turkish non-fermented beverage from Kabarcik and Yediveren grapes. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 33: 252–263. 10.1111/j.1745-4549.2008.00339.x

Heshmati, A., Ghadimi, S., Ranjbar, A. and Khaneghah, A.M., 2019. Changes in aflatoxins content during processing of pekmez as a traditional product of grape. LWT-Food Science and Technology 103: 178–185. 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.01.001

İnan, M.S., 2012. The effects of potassium bicarbonate application by spraying method on drying characteristics of Sultani grape variety. MSc Thesis, Gaziosmanpaşa University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

İşçi, B. and Altındişli, A., 2016. V. vinifera L.cv. “Sultaniye”nin Polietilen Tünel Tipi Kurutucu ve Geleneksel Yöntemle Kurutulması. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 53(4): 469–479.

Jouhten, P., Ponomarova, O., Gonzalez, R. and Patil, K.R., 2016. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context. FEMS Yeast Resources 16(7): fow080. 10.1093/femsyr/fow080

Kalkışım, Ö. and Özdemir, M., 2012. Pestil ve Köme Teknolojisi. Available at: https://kutuphane.gumushane.edu.tr/media/uploads/kutuphane/files/pestil_kome.pdf (accessed 30 May 2021).

Kamiloglu, S. and Capanoglu, E., 2014. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of polyphenols from different molasses (pekmez) and leather (pestil) varieties. International Journal of Food Science 49(4): 1027–1039. 10.1111/ijfs.12396

Karagöz, Ş. and Güllü, M., 2017. Türk Kültüründe Kış Hazırlıkları; Turşu Türlerinin ve Üretim Metotlarının Değerlendirilmesi. Al-Farabi International Journal of Social Sciences 2: 95–105.

Kara, O.O. and Küçüköner, E., 2019. Geleneksel bir meyve çerezi: Pestil. Akademik Gıda 17(2): 260–268. 10.24323/akademik-gida.613621

Kaya, C., Cangi, R., Yıldız, M. and Saraçoğlu, O., 2009. Tokat Üzüm Tarhanası. In: II. Geleneksel Gıdalar Sempozyumu, Van, Turkey, 27–29 May 2009, pp.72–75.

Kaya, S. and Kahyaoglu, T., 2005. Thermodynamic properties and sorption equilibrium of pestil (grape leather). Journal of Food Engineering 71(2): 200–207. 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.10.034

Kaya, Z., 2017. Şarap üretimi ve kalite. Aydın Gastronomy 1(2): 17–30.

Kayikcioglu, S. and Arikan, U., 2020. An overlook to world wine industry. Press Academia Procedia 11(1): 219–223. 10.17261/Pressacademia.2020.1271

Kaymul, M., 2021. Processing some fruits with pestil and determination of some physiochemical properties. MSc Thesis, Pamukkale University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Keleş, P.Ş., Gürses, M. and Erdoğan, A., 2019. Geleneksel şeker kamışı pekmezi. Türk Doğa ve Fen Dergisi 8(1): 43–46.

Kesmez, M. and Aydın, M.S., 2014. Rakı Cep Kitabı. İstanbul: Overteam Yayınları. ISBN: 978–605–5058–01–2.

Kıralan, M. and Gündoğdu, M., 2021. Dut Türlerine Ait Meyvelerin Organik Asit ve C vitamini İçerikleri Üzerine Farklı Kurutma Tekniklerinin Etkisi. IJAWS 7(3): 404–411. 10.24180/ijaws.990049

Kocaadam, B. and Acar-Tek, N., 2016. Ekmek, bira, şarap ve yoğurdun orijinleri ve tarihsel süreçleri. Beslenme ve Diyet Dergisi 44(3): 272–279.

Koçarslan, B., 2002. Determination of numbers and activities of dominant species in anaerobic reactors treating alcohol distillery effluents. MSc Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology.

KOP (Konya Ovası Projesi), 2021. Üretici Rehberi-Üzüm. Available at: http://www.kop.gov.tr/upload/dokumanlar/229.pdf (accessed 29 May 2021).

Köprüalan, Ö., Bodruk, A. and Ertekin, F., 2019. Meyve ve sebzelerin patlatmalı puf kurutma yöntemi ile kurutulması. Akademik Gıda 17(1): 81–88. 10.24323/akademik-gida.544726

Köse, B. and Çelik, S.A., 2017. Dünyada ve Türkiye’de bağcılık turizmi. IRTAD 1(2): 29–34.

Lippi, G., Franchini, M. and Guidi, G.C., 2010. Red wine and cardiovascular health: the “French Paradox” revisited. International Journal of Wine Research, 2; 1–7. 10.2147/IJWR.S8159

MTech, R.J. and Venkatasubramanian, P., 2017 Sugarcane molasses—a potential dietary supplement in the management of iron deficiency anemia. Journal of Dietary Supplements 14(5): 589–598. 10.1080/19390211.2016.1269145

MTRT (The Ministry of Trade: Republic of Türkiye), 2019. 2018 Yılı Çekirdeksiz Kuru Üzüm Raporu. Available at: https://ticaret.gov.tr/data/5d41e59913b87639ac9e02e8/3b2ba45225a22c82570042d14b4de7ef.pdf (accessed 29 May 2021).

Nakilcioğlu-Taş, E., Çakaloğlu, B. and Ötleş, S., 2018. Farklı oranlarda keçiboynuzu unu içeren pestillerin bazı fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. Turkish Journal of Food and Agriculture Sciences 6(8): 945–952. 10.24925/turjaf.v6i8.945-952.1445

Otağ, M.R., 2015Determination of some properties and resveratrol content of some grape varieties grown in Denizli Çal region during different ripening period and after drying process. PhD Thesis, Pamukkale University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Otles, S. and Ozyurt, V.H., 2019. Probiotic and prebiotic beverages. Grumezescu, A.M. and Holban, A.M. (eds.) In: Functional and medicinal beverages. Academic Press, Massachusetts, pp. 447–458.

Özaltın, K.E. and Çağındı, Ö., 2018. Üzüm Pestili Üretiminde Üzüm Posasının Kullanım. Bahçe 47(Özel Sayı 1): 321–326.

Özden, S.Y., 2015. Alkolizm sebep ve sonuçları. Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık, Ankara, Turkey. ISBN: 978–605–320–161–8.

Öztürk, F., 2020. Midye Örneklerinde Vibrio parahaemolyticus’a Karşı Koruk, Limon ve Nar Suyunun Antibakteriyel Etkisi. Gıda 45(3): 506–516. 10.15237/gida.GD20024

Piergiovanni, L., 2012. Packaging and shelf life of fermented foods. Italian Journal of Food Science 24(4): 9–15.

Semerci, G. and Cangi, R., 2020. Determination of yield and leaf characteristics of edible leaves collected from grapevine nursery parcel. Turkish Journal of Food and Agriculture Science 8(3): 538–546. 10.24925/turjaf.v8i3.538-546.2866

Shojaee-Aliabadi, S., Hosseini, S.M., Tiwari, B., Hashemi, M., Fadavi, G. and Khaksar, R., 2013. Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of Ghure (unripe grape) marc extract: influence of extraction time, temperature and solvent type. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 48(2): 412–418. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03203.x

Sormaz, Ü., Onur, N., Güneş, E. and Nizamlıoğlu, H.F., 2019. Türk mutfağı geleneksel ürünlerinde yöresel farklılıklar: Tarhana örneği. Aydın Gastronomy 3(1): 1–9.

Sun, Y., Li, E., Qi, X. and Liu, Y., 2015. Changes of diversity and population of yeasts during the fermentations by pure and mixed inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Annals of Microbiology 65(2): 911–919. 10.1007/s13213-014-0934-8

Süren, T. and Kızıleli, M., 2021. Geleneksel Türk İçecekleri. AHBVTF Dergisi 24(1): 46–71. 10.34189/tfd.24.01.003

Şen, L., 2014. Occurance of ochratoxin A in raisins and effect of storage condition on ochratoxin A level. PhD Thesis, Pamukkale University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Şenuyar, C., Demirbaş, N. and Saygın, Ö., 2014. Türk şarap sektörünün mevcut durumu ve sektörün gelişimini sınırlayan faktörlerin değerlendirilmesi. Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 28(2): 1–12.

Şüyün, F., 2020. Zahmetli ve değerli: Kuru üzüm. Available at: https://www.dunya.com/saglik/zahmetli-ve-degerli-kuru-uzum-ozel-haberi-435086 (accessed 4 September 2022).

Tamer, C.E., Ömeroğlu, P.Y. and Çopur, Ö.U., 2019. Functional and traditional nonalcoholic beverages in Turkey. Grumezescu, A.M. and Holban, A.M. (eds.) In: Non-alcoholic beverages. Woodhead Publishing, USA. pp. 483–521. 10.1016/B978-0-12-815270-6.00015-3

TFC (Turkish Food Codex), 2017a. Turkish food codex communiqué on distilled alcoholic beverages (Communiqué No:Codon Publications 2016/55). Official Gazette, March 21, 30014. Available at: https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/03/20170321-11.htm (accessed 5 September 2022).

TFC (Turkish Food Codex), 2017b. Turkish food codex communiqué on grape molasses (Communiqué No:Codon Publications 2017/8). Official Gazette, June 30, 30110. Available at: https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/06/20170930-24.htm (accessed 5 September 2022).

Tokatlı, M., Dursun, D., Arslankoz, N., Şanlıbaba, P. and Özçelik, F., 2012. Turşu üretiminde laktik asit bakterilerinin önemi. Akademik Gıda 10(1): 70–76.

Tosun, H., Yıldız, H., Obuz, E. and Seçkin, A.K., 2014. Ochratoxin A in grape pekmez (grape molasses) consumed in Turkey. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B 7(1): 37–39. 10.1080/19393210.2013.833298

TSI (Turkish Standards Institution), 2011. Turkish Seedless Raisins Standards (TS 3411). Available at: https://intweb.tse.org.tr/Standard/Standard/StandardAra.aspx (accessed 5 September 2022).

Türkben, C., Suna, S., İzli, G., Uylaşer, V. and Demir, C., 2016. Physical and chemical properties of pekmez molasses produced with different grape cultivars. Journal of Agriculture Science 22(3): 339–348. 10.1501/Tarimbil_0000001392

Türkben, C. and Uylaşer, V., 2018. Türkiye’de Farklı Lokasyonlarda Üretilen Pekmezin (Üzüm Pekmezi) Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri. Bahçe 47(Özel Sayı 1): 131–139.

Uçar, A., 2015. Geleneksel Türk Tadı: Pekmez. Available at: https://ayk.gov.tr/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/U%C3%87AR-Asl%C4%B1-GELENEKSEL-T%C3%9CRK-TADI-PEKMEZ.pdf (accessed 29 May 2021).

Uysal-Seçkin, G. and Taşeri, L., 2015. Yarı-Kurutulmuş Meyve ve Sebzeler. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 21(9): 414–420. 10.5505/pajes.2015.47560

Yakar, Y., 2018. Çekirdeksiz sofralık üzümlerde pestisit kalıntılarının belirlenmesi. Yüzüncü Yıl Üniv. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 28(4): 444–447. 10.29133/yyutbd.453960

Yıldırım, A., 2008. A Research on some of the chemical properties of beet molasses produced traditionally in Kirklareli City. MSc Thesis, Namık Kemal University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Yıldız, M., Kaya, C., Cangi, R., Özgen, M., Saraçoğlu, O., Tokbaş, H., et al., 2010. Beyaz ve Siyah Üzümden Üretilen Tokat Tarhanasının Bazı Özellikleri. In: 1st International Symposium on “Traditional foods from Adriatic to Caucasus,” Tekirdağ-Turkey, 15–17 April 2010, pp. 524–526.

Yildiz, O., 2013. Physicochemical and sensory properties of mulberry products: Gümüşhane pestil and köme. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 37(6): Article 11. 10.3906/tar-1301-41

Yildiz, O. and Boyraci, G.M., 2020. Production and some quality parameters of sugar beet sweets (Pestil and Köme). Sugar Technology 22(5): 842–852. 10.1007/s12355-020-00832-z

Yildiz, O., Kara, M. and Dinç, S., 2015. Production and some properties of traditional sugar beet pekmez from Turkey. International Sugar Journal 117(1394): 46–53.

Yildiz, O., Yurt, B., Toker, O.S., Ceylan, M.M., Yilmaz, M.T. and Bastürk, A., 2015. Pasting, textural and sensory characteristics of the kofter, a fruit-based dessert: effect of molasses and water concentration. International Journal of Food Engineering 11(3): 349–358. 10.1515/ijfe-2014-0313

Yılmaz, D.M., 2022. Determination of tryptophan pathway metabolites in some fermented products. MSc Thesis, Trakya University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences.

Yılmaz, İ. and Akay, E., 2020. Özel ilgi turizminde şarap turizmi. Turkish Journal of Scientific Reviews 13(2): 83–94.

Yolcu, M.A., 2018. Nevşehir Yöresinde Ailelerin Geleneksel Kış Hazırlıkları. Kültür Araştırmaları Dergisi 1(1): 7–22.

Zhang, Y., 2010. Allyl isothiocyanate as a cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 54(1): 127–135. 10.1002/mnfr.200900323