Beneficial properties of zeolite

Main Article Content

Gordana Oggiano
Biljana Pokimica
Tamara Popović
Marija Takić


different applications, physical-chemical properties, therapeutic benefits, zeolite


Our focus was to obtain an overall picture of the different beneficial properties of zeolite, based on its chemical and physical characteristics, which depend on zeolite absorption and exchange of ions. These characteristics make them very useful for various applications, including agriculture (as an animal feed additive and in food technology production), veterinary and human medicine, ecology, certain manufacturing, and cosmetics. Zeolite has pleiotropic effects, and the most important of them are detoxifying, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory roles. We wanted to underline, with the review of the scientific literature, the positive medical beneficial effects of zeolite on the general health status.

Abstract 50 | PDF Downloads 45 HTML Downloads 15 XML Downloads 18


Adamović, M., Stojanović, M., Harbinja, M., Maslovarić, M., Bočarov-Stančić, A. and Pezo, L., 2020. Efficiency investigation of the use of pyrophyllite in ensiling maize plant. Food and Feed Research 47: 2. 10.5937/ffr47-29445

Adeyemo, A.A., Adeoye, I.O. and Bello, O.S., 2017. Adsorption of dyes using different types of clay: a review. Applied Water Science 7: 543–568. 10.1007/s13201-015-0322-y

Alkasir, R., Li, J., Li, X., Jin, M. and Zhu, B., 2016. Human gut microbiota: the links with dementia development. Protein Cell 8: 90–102. 10.1007/s13238-016-0338-6

Bagheri, A., Naghshi, S., Sadeghi, O., Larijani, B. and Esmaillzadeh, A., 2021. Total, dietary, and supplemental magnesium intakes and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Advances in Nutrition 12(4): 1196–1210. 10.1093/advances/nmab001

Baldwin, C., Elizabeth, C.W., Cystic, C. and Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group, 2011. Dietary advice with or without oral nutritional supplements for disease-related malnutrition in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 9: CD002008. 10.1002/14651858.CD002008.pub4

Berti, V., Walters, M., Sterling, J., Quinn, C.G., Logue, M., Andrews, R., et al. 2018. Mediterranean diet and 3-year Alzheimer brain biomarker changes in middle-aged adults. Neurology 90: e1789–e1798. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000005527

Bočarov-Stančić, A., Bodroža-Solarov, M., Stanković, S., Jankovi, S., Djisalov, J., Novaković, Ž., et al. 2015. Mycotixins in cattle diet-biodegradiation in rumen, occurrence, and prevention of mycotoxicosis. In: Procceedings of the 4th International Congress. “New Perspectives and Challenges of Sustainble Livestock Production,” pp. 748–759.

Bruce, E.L., Georgieva, V.M., Verbraeken, M.C., Murray, C.A., Hsieh, M.F., Casteel, W.J., et al. 2021. Structural chemistry, flexibility, and CO2 adsorption performance of Alkali metal forms of merlinoite with a framework Si/Al ratio of 4.2. The Journal of Physical Chemistry 125: 27403−27419. 10.1021/acs.jpcc.1c08296

Castello, M.A. and Soriano, S., 2014. On the origin of Alzheimer’s disease. Trials and tribulations of the amyloid hypothesis. Ageing ResearchReviews 13: 10–12. 10.1016/j.arr.2013.10.001

Cataldo, E., Salvi, L., Paoli, F., Fucile, M., Masciandaro, G., Manzi, D., et al. 2021. Application of zeolites in agriculture and other potential uses-a review. Agronomy 11: 1547. 10.3390/agronomy11081547

Chen, L.H., Sun, M.H., Wang, Z., Yang, W., Xie, Z. and Su, B.L., 2020. Hierarchically structured zeolites: from design to application. Chemical Reviews 120: 11194–11294. 10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c00016

Colic, M. and Pavelic, K., 2000. Molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity of natural dietetic products. Journal of Molecular Medicine 78(6): 333. 10.1007/s001090000121

Čutovic, M., Lazovic, V., Vukovic-Dejanovic, V., Nikolic, D., Petronic-Markovic, I. and Cirovic, D., 2017. Clinoptilolite for treatment of dyslipidemia: preliminary efficacy study. The Journal of Alternative and. Complementary Medicine 23: 738. 10.1089/acm.2016.0414

Derakhshankhah, H., Jafari, S., Sarvari, S., Barzegari, E., Moakedi, F., Ghorbani, G., et al. 2020. Biomedical applications of zeolitic nanoparticles, with an emphasis on medical interventions. International Journal of Nanomedicine 15: 363–386. 10.2147/IJN.S234573

EFSA FEEDAP Panel (EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed), Rychen, G., Aquilina, G., Azimonti, G., Bampidis, V., Bastos, M.L., et al. 2017. Guidance on the identity, characterization, and, conditions of use of fe additives. EFSA Journal 15(10): 995023. 10.2903/j.efsa.2017.5023

Eroglu, N., Emekci, M. and Athanassiou, C.G., 2017. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and foodproduction. Journal of Science of Food Agriculture 97(11): 3487–3499. 10.1002/jsfa.8312

FDA, 2016. Code of federal regulations. Available at:

Giau, V., Wu, S., Jamerlan, A., An, S., Kim, S. and Hulme, J., 2018. Gut microbiota and their neuroinflammatory implications in Alzheimer’s disease. Nutrients 10: 176. 10.3390/nu10111765

Golokhvast, K., Sergievich, A. and Grigoriev, N., 2014. Geophagy (rock-eating), experimental stress and cognitive idiosyncrasy. Asian Pac. Journal Tropic Biomedicine 4: 362–366. 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1197

Grądzki, Z., Jarosz, L., Stępień-Pyśniak, D. and Marek, A., 2020. The effect of feed supplementation with transcarpathian zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the concentrations of acute phase proteins and cytokines in the serum and hepatic tissue of chickens. Poultry Science Journal 99(5): 2424–2437. 10.1016/j.psj.2020.01.003

Griffiths, J.A. and Mazmanian, S.K., 2018. Emerging evidence linking the gut microbiome to neurologic disorders. Genome Medicine 10(1): 98. 10.1186/s13073-018-0609-3

Habib, M.A. and Bockris, J.O., 1980. Specific adsorption of ions. In: Bockris, J.O., Conway, B.E. and Yeager, E. (eds.) Comprehensive treatise of electrochemistry. Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 135–219.

Hao, J., Milašin, I.S., Zeynep, B.E., Marinka, M.S., Krešimir, P. and Fusun, O., 2021. Effects of zeolite as a drug delivery system on cancer therapy: a systematic review. Molecules 26(20): 6196. 10.3390/molecules26206196

Hu, X., Wang, T., Jin, F., 2016. Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota. Science China Life Sciences 59: 1006–1023. 10.1007/s11427-016-5083-9

Huidong, L., 2022. Conversion of harmful fly ash residue to zeolites: innovative processes focusing on maximum activation, extraction, and utilization of aluminosilicate. ACS Omega. 7(23): 20347–20356. 10.1021/acsomega.2c02388

IARC, 1997a. Silica; some silicates; coal dust and para-aramid fibrils. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans No. 68. IARC, Lyon, p. 506.

IARC, 1997b. Zeolites other than erionite. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans No. 68. IARC, Lyon, pp. 307–333.

Ilgren, E.B., Brena, M.O., Larragoitia, J.C., Navarrete, G.L., Breña, A.F., Krauss, E., et al. 2008. A reconnaissance study of a potential emerging Mexican mesothelioma epidemic due to fibrous zeolite exposure. Indoor Built Environmental 17: 496–515. 10.1177/1420326X08096610

Ivkovic, S., Bendzko, P. and Schulz, J., 2004. Tribomechanically activated zeolite (TMAZ) as an adjuvant cancer treatment-promising results from clinical case observations. Free Radical Biology Medicine 37: S173.

Ivkovic, S. and Zabcic, D., 2002. Antioxidative therapy: nanotechnology product, TMA-zeolite reduces oxidative stress in cancer and diabetic patients. In Free radical biology and medicine. Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, The Boulevard, Kidlington.

Kaelberer, M.M., Buchanan, K.L., Klein, M.E., Barth, B.B., Montoya, M.M., Shen, X., et al. 2018. A gut-brain neural circuit for nutrient sensory transduction. Science 361:eaat5236. 10.1126/science.aat5236

Karnwal, A. and Bhardaway, V., 2014. Bioremediation of heavy metals (Zn and Cr) using microbial biosurfactant. Journal of Environmental Research and Protection 11: 29–33.

Katsoulos, P.D., Roubies, N., Panousis, N., Arsenos, G., Christaki, E. and Karatzias, H., 2005. Effects of long-term dietary supplementation with clinoptilolite on the incidence of parturient paresis and serum concentrations of total calcium, phosphate, magnesium, potassium, and sodium in dairy cows. American Journal of. Veterinary Research 66: 2081–2085. 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.2081

Kraljević-Pavelić, S., Simović, M.J., Gumbarević, D., Filošević, A., Pržulj, N. and Pavelić, K., 2018. Critical review on zeolite clinoptilolite safety and medical applications in vivo. Front Pharmacol 9: 1350. 10.3389/fphar.2018.01350

Kuley, E., Ozogul, F., Durmus, M., Gokdogan, S., Kacar, C., Ozogul, Y., et al. 2012. The impact of applying natural clinoptilolite(zeolite) on the chemical, sensory and microbiological changes of vacuum-packed sardine filets. International Journal Food Science Technology 47: 1977–1985. 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2012.03060.x

Lacrimioara, S., Alexandra, H., Ana, M., Iulia, A., Török, D.K., Dorina, S., et al. 2022. The potential application of natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite as support for bacterial community formation for wastewater treatment. Materials 15(10): 3685. 10.3390/ma15103685

La Rosa, F., Clerici, M., Ratto, D., Occhinegro, A., Licito, A., Romeo, M., et al. 2018. The gut-brain axis in Alzheimer’s disease and omega-3. A critical overview of clinical trials. Nutrients 9: 1267. 10.3390/nu10091267

Laurino, C. and Palmieri, B., 2015. Zeolite: “the magic stone,” main nutritional, environmental. Experimental and clinical fields of application. NutricionHospitalaria 32(2): 573–581.

Levy, R., Rotfogel, Z., Hillman D., Popugailo, A., Arad, G., Supper, E., et al. 2016. Superantigens hyperinduce inflammatory cytokines by enhancing the B7-2/CD28 costimulatory receptor interaction. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences U S A 113: E6437–E6446. 10.1073/pnas.1603321113

Li, Y., Cai, Y., Chen, T. and Bao, X., 2022. Zeolites: series of promising biomaterials in bone tissue engineering. Frontiers inBioengeenering and Biotechnology 20: 1066552. 10.3389/fbioe.2022.1066552

Lijuan, S., Shuangxi, L., Peiyun, G., Ke, S., Hong, Z., Yafei, S., et al. 2022. Stabilization of zinc in agricultural soil originated from commercial organic fertilizer by natural zeolite. International Journal of Environmental Researcg Public Health 19(3): 1210. 10.3390/ijerph19031210

Miramontes-Gutierrez E.M., Ochoa-Rivero, J.M., Rubio-Arias H.O., Ballinas-Casarrubias L., Rocha-Gutiérrez, B.A. Impact of Cations (Na+, K+, Mg+2) and Anions (F−, Cl−, SO42−) Leaching from Filters Packed with Natural Zeolite and Ferric Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment. International Journal of Environmental. Research Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8525; 10.3390/ijerph18168525

Mahmoudi, M., Quinlan-Pluck, F., Monopoli, M.P., Sheibani, S., Vali, H., Dawson, K.A., et al. 2013. Influence of the physiochemical properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on amyloid β protein fibrillation in solution. ACS Chemical Neuroscience 4(3): 475–485. 10.1021/cn300196n

Maleki, A., Shahbazi, M.A., Alinezhad, V. and Santos, H.A., 2020. The progress and prospect of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks in cancer therapy, antibacterial activity, and biomineralization. Advanced Healthare Materials 9(12): e2000248. 10.1002/adhm.202000248

Mastinu, A., Kumar, A., Maccarinelli, G., Bonini, S.A., Premoli, M., Aria, F., et al. 2019. Zeolite clinoptilolite: therapeutic virtues of an ancient mineral. Molecules 24(8): 1517. 10.3390/molecules24081517

Molla, A., Ioannou, Z., Mollas, S., Skoufogianni, E. and Dimirkou, A., 2017. Removal of chromium from solis cultivated with maize (Zea mays) after the addition of natural minerals as soil amendments. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and. Toxicology 98: 347. 10.1007/s00128-017-2044-3

Montinaro, M., Uberti, D., Maccarinelli, G., Bonini, S.A., Ferrari-Toninelli, G. and Memo, M., 2013. Dietary zeolite supplementation reduces oxidative damage and plaque generation in the brain of an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model, targeting the Aβ−fibrinogen. Life Sciences 92(17–19): 903–910. 10.1016/j.lfs.2013.03.008

Moos, W.H., Faller, D.V., Harpp, D.N., Kanara, I., Pernokas, J., Powers, W.R., et al. 2016. Microbiota and neurological disorders: a gut feeling. Bioresearch Open Access 5: 137–145. 10.1089/biores.2016.0010

Mosesson, M., 2005. Fibrinogen and fibrin structure and functions. Journal of Thrombosis and Hemostasis 3(8): 1894–1904. 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2005.01365.x

Nešić, A., Meseldzija, S., Cabrera-Barjas, G. and Onjia, A., 2022. Novel biocomposite films based on high methoxyl pectin reinforced with zeolite Y for food packaging applications. Foods 11(3): 360. 10.3390/foods11030360

Ozdemir, M. and Floros, J.D., 2004. Active food packaging technologies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 44: 185–193. 10.1080/10408690490441578

Polat, E., Karaca, M., Demir, H., Onus, A.N., 2004. Use of natural zeolite (clinoptilolite 9 in agriculture. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research 12:183–189.

Pan, X., Jiao, F., Miao, D. and Bao, X., 2021. Oxide–zeolite-based composite catalyst concept that enables syngas chemistry beyond Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Chemical Reviews 121: 6588–6609. 10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01012

Papaioannou, D., Katsoulos, P.D., Panousis, N. and Karatzias, H., 2005. The role of natural and synthetic zeolites as feed additives on the prevention and/or the treatment of certain farm animal disease. A review. Microporous Mesoporous Materials Journal 84: 161–170. 10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.05.030

Patel, M., 2016. Targeting oxidative stress in central nervous system disorders. Trends in Pharmacological. Sciences 37: 768–778. 10.1016/

Pavelić, K. and Hadžija, M., 2003. Medical application of zeolites. In: Auerbach, S. and Carrado, K. (eds.) Handbook of zeolite sciences and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, pp. 1143–1174.

Pavelić, K., Hadžija, M., Bedrica, L., Pavelić, J., Dikić, I., Katić, M., et al. 2001. Natural zeolite clinoptilolite: new adjuvant in anticancer therapy. Journal of Molecular Medicine 78(12): 708–720. 10.1007/s001090000176

Pavelic, K., Katic, M., Sverko, V., Marotti, T., Bosnjak, B., Balog, T., et al. 2012. Immunostimulatory effect of natural clinoptilolite as a possible mechanism of its antimetastatic ability. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 128(1): 37–44. 10.1007/s00432-001-0301-6

Poulsen, H.D. and Oksbjerg, N., 1995. Effects of dietary inclusion of a zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on performance and protein—metabolism of young growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 53: 297–303. 10.1016/0377-8401(94)00744-T

Qinming, W., Huimin, L. and Feng-Shou, X., 2022. Targeted synthesis of zeolites from calculated interaction between zeolite structure and organic template. Nationa Science Review 9(9): nwac023. 10.1093/nsr/nwac023

Ramesh K., Biswas AK., Somasundaram J., Subbarao A. 2010. Nanoporous zeolites in farming: current status and issues ahead. Current Science 99(6): 760–764.

Ruobing, B., Xiaowei, S., Wenfu, Y. and Jihong, Y., 2022. Low-energy adsorptive separationby zeolites. Nationa Science Review 9(9): nwac064. 10.1093/nsr/nwac064

Ryan, P., Dihle, M., Griffin, S., Pzartridge, C., Hilbert, T., Taylor, R., et al. 2011. Erionite in road gravel associated with interstitial and pleural changes an occupational hazard in Western United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 53(8): 892–898. 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318223d44c

Saghiri, M., Garcia, G.F., Gutaman J.L., Lotfi M., Asatourian A., Sheibani N., et al. 2014. The effect of pH on solubility of nano-modified endodontic cements. Journal of Conservative Dentistry 17(1): 13–17. 10.4103/0972-0707.124096

Saribeyoglu, K., Aztac, E., Pekmezci, S., Saygili, S., Uzun, H., Ozbay, G., et al. 2011. Effects of clinoptililote treatment on oxidative stress after partial hepatectomy in rats. Asian Journal of Surgery 34: 373. 10.1016/j.asjsur.2011.11.007

Schneider, A.F., Zimmermann, O.F. and Gewehr, C.E., 2017. Zeolites in poultry and swine production. Ciencia Rural 47: e20160344. 10.1590/0103-8478cr20160344

Soledad, I.N. and Font, J., 2022. Clay, zeolite and oxide minerals: natural catalytic materialfor the ozonation of organic pollutantsMolecules 27(7): 2151. 10.3390/molecules27072151

Spiridon, I.A. and Căruntu, I.D. 2022. Insight into potential biomedical application of mesoporous materials. Pharmaceutics 14(11): 2382. 10.3390/pharmaceutics14112382

Uddin, M.K., 2017. A review on the adsorption of heavy metals by clay minerals, with special focus on the past decade. Chemical Engineering Journal 308: 438–462. 10.1016/j.cej.2016.09.029

Virta, R.L., 2015. Zeolites (Natural). U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries. Available at

Wang, Q., Mukesh, K.A., Ren, X., Zhao, J., Li, R., Wang, Z., et al. 2018. Combining biochar, zeolite and wood vinegar for composting of pig manure: The effect on greenhouse gas emission and nitrogen conservation. Waste Management 74:221–230.

Wu, Y., Wu, Q., Zhou, Y., Ahmad, H. and Wang, T., 2013. Effects of clinoptilolite on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers. Biological Trace Element Research 155: 228. 10.1007/s12011-013-9777-6

Xiao, Y., Chen, W., Yi, X., Peng, W., Liu, Z., Xia, H., et al. 2021. Confinement-driven “flexible” acidity properties of porous zeolite catalysts with varied probe-assisted solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The Journal of. Physical Chemistry 125: 11580–11590. 10.1021/acs.jpcc.1c01209

Yapisklar, H., Taskin, E., Ozdas, S., Akin, D. and Sonmez, E., 2016. Counteraction of apoptotic and inflammatory effects of Adriamycin in the liver cell culture by clinoptilolite. Biological Trace Element Research 170: 373. 10.1007/s12011-015-0476-3

Yimnak, K., Thipmanee, R. and Sane, A., 2020. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) / thermoplastic starch/zeolite 5A films: effects of compounding sequence and plasticizer content. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 164: 1037–1045. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.169

Zimmermann, N.E. and Haranczyk, M., 2016. History and utility of zeolite framework-type discovery from a data-science perspective. Crystal and Growth Design, ACS Publications 16: 3043–3048. 10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00272