Nutrigenomics: linking food to genome

Main Article Content

Asma Jabeen
Geetika Malik
Javid Iqbal Mir
Rozy Rasool


gene, interaction, micronutrients, nutrigenomics, nutrition


Nutrigenomics has an undoubtedly immeasurable potential for revamping human health. It has become an important regimen due to its consequential role in medical and nutritional sciences. It is an interdisciplinary science that amalgamates the information from physiology, pathology, genetics, molecular biology, and nutrition to establish the effects of ingested nutrients on expression and regulation of genes. The ultimate aim of nutrigenomics is to ascertain the nutritional requirement of an individual in accordance with genetic makeup. Moreover, it aims to purvey treatment in the management of certain ailments having a dietary role based on individual’s genomic profile. Therefore, vast research in the field of nutritional genomics is a dire need to make people aware regarding their health and diet relationship. Here, we have given an overview of nutrigenomics coupled with novel technologies to produce utilitarian information for health professionals and researchers by divulging certain properties that interfere with the genomic machinery.

Abstract 256 | PDF Downloads 186 HTML Downloads 74 XML Downloads 59


Abbasi, A.M., Shah M.H. and Khan M.A., 2015. “Phytochemicals and Nutraceuticals,” in wild edible veetables of lesser Himalayas. Cham: Springer. pp. 31–65. 10.1007/978-3-319-09543-1_3

Afman, L. and Müller, M., 2006. Nutrigenomics: from molecular nutrition to prevention of disease. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 106(4):569–576. 10.1016/j.jada.2006.01.001

Afshin, A., Sur, P.J., Fay, K.A., Cornaby, L., Ferrara, G., Salama J.S., et al., 2019. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. The Lancet. 393(10184): 1958–1972.

Alagawany, M., Elnesr, S.S., Farag, M.R., El-Naggar, K. and Madkour, M., 2022. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics in poultry nutrition: an updated review. Worlds Poultry Science Journal. 78(2): 377–396. 10.1080/00439339.2022.2014288

Alappat, L. and Awad, A.B., 2010. Curcumin and obesity: evidence and mechanisms. Nutrition Reviews. 68:729–738. 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00341.x

Alavanja, M., Hoppin, J. and Kamel, F., 2004. Health effects of chronic pesticide exposure: cancer and neurotoxicity. Annual Review of Public Health. 25: 155–197. 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.25.101802.123020

Amin, T., Mahapatra, H., Bhat, S.V. and Gulleria, S.P.S., 2012. Application of nutrigenomics in food industry: a review. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 2(3–4): 54–59.

Anitha, A., Viswambharan, V., Thanseem, I., Iype, M., Parakkal, R., Surendran, S.P., et al., 2021. Vitamins and cognition: a nutrigenomics perspective. Current Nutrition and Food Science. 17(4): 348–336. 10.2174/1573401316999200901180443

Anonymous, 2006. United States Government accountability office nutrigenetic testing: tests purchased from four websites mislead consumers. Washington: US GAO. pp. 1–27.

Ashwell, M., 2004. Concepts on functional food. Washington, DC: International Life Science Institute (ILSI), ILSI Press. 48 p.

Balasubramanyam, K., Swaminathan, V., Ranganathan, A. and Kundu, T.K., 2003. Small molecule modulators of histone acetyltransferase p300. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278(21): 19134–19140. 10.1074/jbc.M301580200

Baldwin, W.S., 2019. Phase 0 of the xenobiotic response: nuclear receptors and other transcription factors as a first step in protection from xenobiotics. Nuclear Receptor Research. 6: 101447. 10.32527/2019/101447

Benhamed, F., Denechaud, P.D., Lemoine, M., Robichon, C., Moldes, M., Bertrand-Michel, J., et al., 2012.The lipogenic transcription factor ChREBP dissociates hepatic steatosis from insulin resistance in mice and humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 122(6): 2176–2194. 10.1172/JCI41636

Bhattacharya, A., Li, Y., Wade, K.L., Paonessa, J.D., Fahey, J.W. and Zhang, Y., 2010. Allyl isothiocyanate rich mustard seed powder inhibits bladder cancer growth and muscle invasion. Carcinogenesis. 31(12): 2105–2110. 10.1093/carcin/bgq202

Bordoni, L., Petracci, I., Zhao, F., Min, W., Pierella, E., Assmann, T.S., et al., 2021. Nutrigenomics of dietary lipids. Antioxidants. 10(7): 994. 10.3390/antiox10070994

Bosviel, R., Dumollard, E., Déchelotte, P., Bignon, Y.J. and Bernard-Gallon, D., 2012. Can soy phytoestrogens decrease DNA-methylation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 oncosuppressorgenes in breast cancer? OMICS. 16(5): 235–244. 10.1089/omi.2011.0105

Brand, A., Evangelatos, N. and Özdemir, V., 2021. Placebogenomics: a new concept and tool for personalized medicine and public health. OMICS. 25(2): 76–78. 10.1089/omi.2020.0221

Broderick, N., Raffa, K.F. and Handelsman, J., 2006. Midgut bacteria required for Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103(41): 15196–15199. 10.1073/pnas.0604865103

Brouwer, I.A., Zock, P.L., van Amelsvoort, L.G.P.M., Katan, M.B. and Schouten, E.G., 2002. Association between n-3 fatty acid status in blood and electrocardiographic predictors of arrhythmia risk in healthy volunteers. American Journal of Cardiology. 89(5): 629–631. 10.1016/S0002-9149(01)02314-1

Canniatti-Brazaca, S.G. and Germano, O.M.A., 2011. Iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in different mixtures. Food Science and Technology. 31(2): 327–333. 10.1590/S0101-20612011000200008

Chadwick, R., 2004. Nutrigenomics, individualism and public health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 63(1): 161–166. 10.1079/PNS2003329

Colson, N.J., Naug, H.L., Nikbakht, E., Zhang, P. and McCormack, J., 2017. The impact of MTHFR 677 C/T genotypes on folate status markers: a meta-analysis of folic acid intervention studies. European Journal of Nutrition. 56(1): 247–260. 10.1007/s00394-015-1076-x

Cozzolino, S.M.F. and Cominetti, C., 2013. Biochemical and physiological bases of nutrition in different stages of life in health and disease. 1st ed. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Monole. Pp. 1257.

Crider, K.S., Yang, T.P., Berry, R.J. and Bailey, L.B., 2012. Folate and DNA methylation: a review of molecular mechanisms and the evidence for folate’s role. Advances in Nutrition. 3(1): 21–38. 10.3945/an.111.000992

Dauncey, M.J., 2012. Recent advances in nutrition, genes and brain health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 71(4): 581–591. 10.1017/S0029665112000237

Davis, P.A. and Yokoyama, W., 2011. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. Journal of Medicinal Food. 14: 884–889. 10.1089/jmf.2010.0180

Deckelbaum, R.J., Worgall, T.S. and Seo, T., 2006. n-3 fatty acids and gene expression. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 83(6 Suppl): 1520S–1525S. 10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1520S

DeFelice, S.L., 1995. The Nutraceutical Revolution: its impact on food industry R&D. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 6(2): 59–61. 10.1016/S0924-2244(00)88944-X

Diószegi, J., Llanaj, E. and Adany, R., 2019. Genetic background of taste perception, taste preferences, and its nutritional implications: a systematic review. Frontiers in Genetics. 10: 1272. 10.3389/fgene.2019.01272

Dolinoy, D.C., Weidman, J.R., Waterland, R.A. and Jirtle, R.L., 2006. Maternal genistein alters coat color and protects Avy mouse offspring from obesity by modifying the fetal epigenome. Environmental Health Perspectives. 114(4): 567–572. 10.1289/ehp.8700

Dwivedi, S., Shukla, S. and Goel, A., 2014. Nutrigenomics in breast cancer. In: Barh D., editor. Omics approaches in breast cancer. New Delhi: Springer. pp. 127–151. 10.1007/978-81-322-0843-3_6

Edwards, P.A., Tabor, D., Kast, H.R. and Venkateswaran, A., 2000. Regulation of gene expression by SREBP and SCAP. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1529(1–3): 103–113. 10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00140-2

Elsamanoudy, A.Z., Neamat-Allah, M.A.M., Mohammad, F.A.H., Hassanien, M. and Nada, H.A., 2016. The role of nutrition related genes and nutrigenetics in understanding the pathogenesis of cancer. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure. 4(3): 115–122. 10.1016/j.jmau.2016.02.002

El-Sohemy, A., Stewart, L., Khataan, N., Fontaine-Bisson, B., Kwong, P., Ozsungur, S., et al., 2007. Nutrigenomics of taste: impact on food preferences and food production. Forum of Nutrition. 60: 176–182. 10.1159/000107194

Emilien, C. and Hollis, J.H., 2017. A brief review of salient factors influencing adult eating behaviour. Nutrition Research Reviews. 30(2): 233–246. 10.1017/S0954422417000099

Fang, M., Chen, D., Yang, C.S., 2007. Dietary polyphenols may affect DNA methylation. Journal of Nutrition. 137(1 Suppl): 223S–228S. 10.1093/jn/137.1.223S

Fang, M.Z., Chen, D., Sun, Y., Jin, Z., Christman, J.K. and Yang, C.S., 2005. Reversal of hyper methylation and reactivation of p16INK4a, RARbeta, and MGMT genes by genistein and other isoflavones from soy. Clinical Cancer Research. 11(19 Pt 1): 7033–7041. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0406

Fang, M.Z., Wang, Y., Ai, N., Hou, Z., Sun, Y., Lu, H., et al., 2003. Tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits DNA methyltransferase and reactivates methylation-silenced genes in cancer cell lines. Cancer Research. 63(22): 7563–7570.

Farhud, D.D. and Yeganeh, M.Z., 2010. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 39(4): 1–14.

Farouque, H.M., Leung, M., Hope, S.A., Baldi, M., Schechter, C., Cameron, J.D., et al., 2006. Acute and chronic effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study. Clinical Science (London, England). 111(1): 71–80. 10.1042/CS20060048

Fekete, S. and Brown, D.L., 2007. Veterinary aspects and perspectives of nutrigenomics: a critical review. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica. 55(2): 229–239. 10.1556/avet.55.2007.2.9

Fenech, M., 2005. The Genome Health Clinic and Genome Health Nutrigenomics concepts: diagnosis and nutritional treatment of genome and epigenome damage on an individual basis. Mutagenesis. 20(4): 255–269. 10.1093/mutage/gei040

Fenech, M., 2008. Genome health nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics-diagnosis and nutritional treatment of genome damage on an individual basis. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46(4): 1365–1370. 10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.035

Fenech, M., 2012. Folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity. Mutation Research. 733(1–2): 21–33. 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2011.11.003

Fukasawa, M., Ge, Q., Wynn, R.M., Ishii, S. and Uyeda, K., 2010. Coordinate regulation/localization of the carbohydrate responsive binding protein (ChREBP) by two nuclear export signal sites: discovery of a new leucine-rich nuclear export signal site. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 391(2): 1166–1169. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.11.115

Fuks, F., 2005. DNA methylation and histone modifications: teaming up to silence genes. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development. 15(5): 490–495. 10.1016/j.gde.2005.08.002

Fuller, R., 1992. History and development of probiotics. In: Fuller, R., (ed.,). Probiotics: the scientific basis. London, NY: Chapman & Hall. pp. 1–8. 10.1007/978-94-011-2364-8_1

Garcia-Bailo, B., Toguri, C., Eny, K.M. and El-Sohem, A., 2009. Genetic variation in taste and its influence on food selection. OMICS. 13(1): 69–80. 10.1089/omi.2008.0031

Garcia-Casal, M.N., 2007. The diet of the future: new technologies and their importance in the nutrition of the population. Venezuelan Annals of Nutrition. 20(2): 108–114.

Geiger, R., Rieckmann, J.C., Wolf, T., Basso, C., Feng, Y., Fuhrer, T., et al., 2016. L-arginine modulates T cell metabolism and enhances survival and anti-tumor activity. Cell. 167(3): 829–842. 10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.031

Georgiadi, A. and Kersten, S., 2012. Mechanisms of gene regulation by fatty acids. Advances in Nutrition. 3(2): 127–134. 10.3945/an.111.001602

Grayson, M., 2010. Nutrigenomics. Nature. 468(7327): S1. 10.1038/468S1a

Halliday, G.M., Surjana, D. and Damian, D.L., 2010. Role of nicotinamide in DNA damage, mutagenesis, and DNA repair. Journal of Nucleic Acids. 2010: 157591. 10.4061/2010/157591

Hartwig, A., 2001. Role of magnesium in genomic stability. Mutation Research. 475(1–2): 113–121. 10.1016/S0027-5107(01)00074-4

Hasan, M.S., Feugang, J.M. and Liao, S.F., 2019. A nutrigenomics approach using RNA sequencing technology to study nutrient–gene interactions in agricultural animals. Current Developments in Nutrition. 3(8): nzz082. 10.1093/cdn/nzz082

Henneke, G., Ralec, C., Henry, E., Lemor, M. and Killelea, T., 2017. Calcium-driven DNA synthesis by a high-fidelity DNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Research. 45(21): 12425–12440. 10.1093/nar/gkx927

Henquin, J.C., 2000. Triggering and amplifying pathways of regulation of insulin secretion by glucose. Diabetes. 49(11): 1751–1760. 10.2337/diabetes.49.11.1751

Ho, E., Clarke, J.D. and Dashwood, R.H., 2009. Dietary sulforaphane, a histone deacetylase inhibitor for cancer prevention. Jornal of Nutrition. 139(12): 2393–2396. 10.3945/jn.109.113332

Horne, J.R. and Vohl, M.C., 2020. Response to the consensus report of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: incorporating genetic testing into nutrition care. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 120(12): 1959–1960. 10.1016/j.jand.2020.07.029

Horton, J.D., Goldstein, J.L. and Brown, M.S., 2002. SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 109(9): 1125–1131. 10.1172/JCI0215593

Howitz, K.T., Bitterman, K.J., Cohen, H.Y., Lamming, D.W., Lavu, S., Wood, J.G., et al., 2003. Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan. Nature. 425(6954): 191–6. 10.1038/nature01960

Hsu, A., Wong, C.P., Yu, Z., Williams, D.E., Dashwood, R.H. and Ho, E., 2011. Promoter de-methylation of cyclin D2 by sulforaphane in prostate cancer cells. Clinical Epigenetics. 3(1): 3. 10.1186/1868-7083-3-3

Htun, N.C., Suga, H., Imai, S., Shimizu, W. and Takimoto, H., 2017. Food intake patterns and cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese adults: analyses from the 2012 National Health and nutrition survey, Japan. Nutrition Journal. 16(1): 61. 10.1186/s12937-017-0284-z

Hudson, K., Javitt, G., Burke, W. and Byers, P., 2007. ASHG statement: on direct-to-consumer genetic testing in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 110(6): 1392–1395. 10.1097/01.AOG.0000292086.98514.8b

Hwang, I.K., Lee, C.H., Yoo, K.Y., Choi, J.H., Park, O.K., Lim, S.S., et al., 2009. Neuroprotective effects of onion extract and quercetin against ischemic neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus. Journal of Medicinal Food. 12(5): 990–995. 10.1089/jmf.2008.1400

Irimie, A.L., Braicu, C., Pasca, S., Magdo, L., Gulei, D., Cojocneanu, R., et al., 2019. Role of key micronutrients from nutrigenetic and nutrigenomic perspectives in cancer prevention. Medicina (Kaunas). 55(6): 283. 10.3390/medicina55060283

Jenkins, D.J.A., Kendall, C.C.W. and Ransom, T.P.P., 1998. Dietary fiber, the evolution of the human diet and coronary heart disease. Nutrition Research. 18: 633–652. 10.1016/S0271-5317(98)00050-5

Joffe, Y. and Herholdt, H., 2020. What will it take to build an expert group of nutrigenomic practitioners? Lifestyle Genomics. 13(3): 122–128. 10.1159/000507252

Kaviarasan, S., Vijagalakshmi, K. and Anuradha, C.V., 2004. Polyphenol-rich extract of fenugreek seeds protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 59(4): 143–147. 10.1007/s11130-004-0025-2

Kelley, N.S., Hubbard, N.E. and Erickson, K.L., 2007. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers and cancer. Journal of Nutrition. 137(12): 2599–2607. 10.1093/jn/137.12.2599

Khan, A., Zaman, G. and Anderson, R.A., 2009. Bay leaves improve glucose and lipid profile of people with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 44(1): 52–56. 10.3164/jcbn.08-188

King-Batoon, A., Leszczynska, J.M. and Klein, C.B., 2008. Modulation of gene methylation by genistein or lycopene in breast cancer cells. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenensis. 49(1): 36–45. 10.1002/em.20363

Klopfleisch, R., Klose, P., Weise, C., Bondzio, A., Multhaup, G., Einspanier, R. and Gruber, A.D., 2010. Proteome of metastatic canine mammary carcinomas: similarities to and differences from human breast cancer. Journal of Proteome Research. 9(12): 6380–6391. 10.1021/pr100671c

Kolasa, K.M., 2005. Strategies to enhance effectiveness of individual based nutrition communications. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59 Suppl 1: S24–S30. 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602171

Koziołkiewicz, M., 2011. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics—are they keys for healthy nutrition? In: Conference on Food and Nutrition in 21st Century, Warsaw, 8–9 September 2011.

Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M., Dusinská, M., Valachovicová, M., Blazícek, P. and Pauková, V., 2006. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma-concentration. Physiological Research. 55(2): 227–231. 10.33549/physiolres.930761

Kruger, C.L. and Mann, S.W., 2003. Safety evaluation of functional ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 41(6): 795. 10.1016/S0278-6915(03)00018-8

Kumar, D., 2007a. From evidence-based medicine to genomic medicine. Genomic Medicine. 1(3–4): 95–104. 10.1007/s11568-007-9013-6

Kumar, D., 2007b. Genome mirror. Genomic Medicine. 1(1–2): 87–90. 10.1007/s11568-007-9001-x

Kurzenhauser, S. and Hertwig, R., 2006. How to foster citizen’s statistical reasoning: implications for genetic counselling. Community Genetics. 9(3): 197–203. 10.1159/000092657

Lee, W.J. and Zhu, B.T., 2006. Inhibition of DNA methylation by caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, two common catechol-containing coffee polyphenols. Carcinogenesis, 27: 269–77.

Lee, S.K., Jeon, J.S., Börnke, F., Voll, L., Cho, J.I., Goh, C.H., Jeong, S.W., Park, Y.I., Kim, S.J. and Choi, S.B. et al., 2008. Loss of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase limits photosynthetic sucrose synthesis and causes severe growth retardations in rice (Oryza sativa). Plant, Cell & Environment. 31: 1851–1863.

Lee, W.J. and Zhu, B.T., 2006. Inhibition of DNA methylation by caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, two common catechol-containing coffee polyphenols. Carcinogenesis. 27(2): 269–77. 10.1093/carcin/bgi206

Lee, W.J., Shim, J.Y. and Zhu, B.T., 2005b. Mechanisms for the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase by tea catechins and bioflavonoids. Molecular. Pharmacology. 68(4): 1018–1030. 10.1124/mol.104.008367

Lewis, S.M., Hotchkiss, C.E. and Ullrey, D.E., 2005. Nutrition and nutritional diseases. In: Wolfe-Coote, S., editor. The laboratory primate (Handbook of experimental animals). 1st ed. Elsevier, UK. pp. 181–208. 10.1016/B978-012080261-6/50013-1

Link, A., Balaguer, F. and Goel, A., 2010. Cancer chemoprevention by dietary polyphenols; promising role for epigenetics. Biochemical Pharmacology. 80(12): 1771–1792. 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.06.036

Liu, B. and Qian, S.B., 2011. Translational regulation in nutrigenomics. American Society for Nutrition. 2(6): 511–519. 10.3945/an.111.001057

Lizuka, K., 2017. The transcription factor carbohydrate-response element-binding protein (ChREBP): a possible link between metabolic disease and cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1863(2): 474–485. 10.1016/j.bbadis.2016.11.029

Majid, S., Kikuno, N., Nelles, J., Noonan, E., Tanaka, Y., Kawamoto, K., et al., 2008. Genistein induces the p21WAF1/CIP1 and p16INK4a tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer cells by epigenetic mechanisms involving active chromatin modification. Cancer Research. 68(8): 2736–2744. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2290

Marcu, M.G., Jung, Y.J., Lee, S., Chung, E.J., Lee, M.J., Trepel, J., et al., 2006. Curcumin is an inhibitor of p300 histone acetyltransferase. Medicinal Chemistry. 2(2): 169–174. 10.2174/157340606776056133

Marteau, T.M., 1999. Communicating genetic risk information. British Medical Bulletin. 55(2): 414–428. 10.1258/0007142991902466

Mead, N., 2007. Nutrigenomics: the genome–food interface. Environmental Health Perspectives. 115(12): A582–A589. 10.1289/ehp.115-a582

Mitall, B.K. and Garg, S.K., 1995. Anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, and antagonistic activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 21(3): 175–214. 10.3109/10408419509113540

Mitra, B., Guha, D. and Gangopadhya, P.K., 2005. Nutrigenomics: a new frontier. [cited 2011 Jan 25]. Available from:

Mohan, V., Sandeep, S., Deepa, R., Shah, B. and Varghese, C., 2007. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 125: 217–230.

Müller, M. and Kersten, S., 2003. Nutrigenomics: goals and strategies. Nature Reviews Genetics. 4(4): 315–322. 10.1038/nrg1047

Murray, T.H. and Botkin, J.R., 1995. Genetic testing and screening: ethical issues. In: Reich, W.T., editor. Encyclopedia of bioethics. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan Publishers. pp. 1005–1111.

Myzak, M.C., Karplus, P.A., Chung, F.L. and Dashwood, R.H., 2004. A novel mechanism of chemoprotection by sulforaphane: inhibition of histone deacetylase. Cancer Research. 64(16): 5767–5774. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1326

Neeha, V.S. and Kinth, P., 2013.Nutrigenomics research: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 50(3): 415–428. 10.1007/s13197-012-0775-z

Nian, H., Delage, B., Pinto, J.T. and Dashwood, R.H., 2008. Allyl mercaptan, a garlic-derived organosulfur compound, inhibits histone deacetylase and enhances Sp3 binding on the P21WAF1 promoter. Carcinogenesis. 29(9): 1816–1824. 10.1093/carcin/bgn165

Nielsen, D. E. and El-Sohemy, A., 2012. A randomized trial of genetic information for personalized nutrition. Genes and Nutrition. 7(4): 559. 10.1007/s12263-012-0290-x

Nijveldt, R.J., Van Nood, E., Van Hoorn, D.E., Boelens, P.G., Van Norren, K. and Van Leeuwen, P.A., 2001. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 74(4): 418–425. 10.1093/ajcn/74.4.418

Ohlhorst, S.D., Russell, R., Bier, D., Klurfeld, D.M., Li, Z., Mein, J.N., et al., 2013. Nutrition research to affect food and a healthy life span. Journal of Nutrition. 98(2): 620–625. 10.3945/ajcn.113.067744

Olaharski, A.J., Rine, J., Marshall, B.L., et al., 2005. The flavouring agent dihydrocoumarin reverses epigenetic silencing and inhibits sirtuin deacetylases. PLoS Genetics. 1(6): e77.

Orlikova, B., Schnekenburger, M., Zloh, M., Golais, F., Diederich, M. and Tasdemir, D., 2012. Natural chalcones as dual inhibitors of HDACs and NF-kappaB. Oncology Report. 28(3): 797–805. 10.3892/or.2012.1870

Palou, A., 2007. From nutrigenomics to personalised nutrition. Genes and Nutrition. 2(1): 5–7. 10.1007/s12263-007-0022-9

Paluszczak, J., Krajka-Kuzniak, V. and Baer-Dubowska, W., 2010. The effect of dietary polyphenols on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. Toxicology Letters. 192(2): 119–125. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.10.010

Park. S. S., Skaar, D. A., Jirtle, R. L. and Hoyo, C., 2017. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure. Epigenomics. 9(1): 57–75.

Peregrin, T., 2001. The new frontier of nutrition science: nutrigenomics. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 101(11): 1306. 10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00309-1

Pizzino, G., Irrera, N., Cucinotta, M., Pallio, G., Mannino, F., Arcoraci, V., et al., 2017. Oxidative stress: harms and benefits for human health. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2017: 8416763. 10.1155/2017/8416763

Rahman, A., Chakraborty, S. and Kabir, Y., 2020. Harnessing personalized nutrigenomics for cancer prevention and treatment through diet-gene interaction In: Functional foods in cancer prevention and therapy. Kabir, Y., editor. Elsevier, UK. pp. 387–403. 10.1016/B978-0-12-816151-7.00019-3

Raj, M., Sundaram, K.R., Paul, M., Deepa, A.S. and Kumar, R.K., 2007. Obesity in Indian children: time trends and relationship with hypertension. The National Medical Journal of India. 20(6): 288–293.

Ramos-Lopez, O., Milagro, F.I., Allayee, H., Chmurzynska, A., Choi M.S., Curi R., et al., 2017. Guide for current nutrigenetic, nutrigenomic, and nutriepigenetic approaches for precision nutrition involving the prevention and management of chronic diseases associated with obesity. Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics. 10(1–2): 43–62. 10.1159/000477729

Rastogi, S., Pandey, M.M., and Rawat, A.K.S., 2017. Spices: therapeutic potential in cardiovascular health. Current Pharmaceutical Design. 23(7): 989–998. 10.2174/1381612822666161021160009

Reddy, V.S., Palika, R., Ismail, A., Pullakhandam, R. and Reddy, G.B., 2017. Nutrigenomics: opportunities & challenges for public health nutrition. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 148(5): 632–641. 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1738_18

Reecy, J.M., Spurlock, D.M. and Stahl, C.H., 2006. Gene expression profiling: insights into skeletal muscle growth and development. Animal Science Journal. 84 Suppl: E150–E154. 10.2527/2006.8413_supplE150x

Reen, J.K., Yadav, A.K. and Singh, J., 2015. Nutrigenomics: concept, advances and applications. Asian Journal of Dairy & Food Research. 34(3): 205–212. 10.5958/0976-0563.2015.00041.X

Riscuta, G., 2016. Nutrigenomics at the interface of aging, lifespan, and cancer prevention. Journal of Nutrition. 146(10): 1931–1939. 10.3945/jn.116.235119

Ronteltap, A., van-Trijp, J.C.M. and Renes, R.J., 2009. Consumer acceptance of nutrigenomics-based personalised nutrition. British Journal of Nutrition. 101(1): 132–144. 10.1017/S0007114508992552

Roosan, D., Wu, Y., Tran, M., Huang, Y., Baskys, A. and Roosan, M.R., 2022. Opportunities to integrate nutrigenomics into clinical practice and patient counseling. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 10.1038/s41430-022-01146-x

Roy, S., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Khanna, S., Sen, C.K., Rink, C., et al., 2004. Body weight and abdominal fat gene expression profile in response to a novel hydroxycitric acid–based dietary supplement. Gene Expression. 11(5–6): 251–262. 10.3727/000000003783992289

Sacks, F. M. and Katan, M., 2002. Randomized clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Medicine. 113 Suppl 9B: 13–24. 10.1016/S0002-9343(01)00987-1

Sales, N.M.R., Pelegrini, P.B. and Goersch, M.C., 2014. Nutrigenomics: definitions and advances of this new science. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2014: 202759. 10.1155/2014/202759

Sanhueza, J. and Valenzuela, A.B., 2012. Nutrigenomics: revealing the molecular aspects of a personalized nutrition. Chilean Magazine of Nutrition. 39: 71–85.

Savini, I., Gasperi, V. and Catani, V.M., 2016. Nutrigenetics. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–11. 10.1002/9780470015902.a0021028

Schafer, Z.T. and Cockfield, J.A., 2019. Antioxidant defences: a context-specific vulnerability of cancer cells. Cancers (Basel). 11(8): 1208. 10.3390/cancers11081208

Schuster, G.U., 2006. Nutrients and gene expression. In: Kaput, J. and Rodriguez, R.L., editors. Nutritional genomics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons. pp. 153–170. 10.1002/0471781797.ch7

Shu, L., Khor, T.O., Lee, J.H., Boyanapalli, S.S., Huang, Y., Wu, T.Y., et al., 2011. Epigenetic CpG demethylation of the promoter and reactivation of the expression of Neurog1 by curcumin in prostate LNCaP cells. The AAPS Journal. 13(4): 606–614. 10.1208/s12248-011-9300-y

Siddique, R.A., Tandon, M., Ambwani, T., Rai, S.N. and Atreja, S.K., 2009. Nutrigenomics: nutrient–gene interactions. Food Reviews International. 25(4): 326–345. 10.1080/87559120903155883

Sorensen, M., Jensen, B.R., Poulsen, H.E., Deng, X., Tygstrup, N., Dalhoff, K., et al., 2001. Effects of a Brussels sprouts extract on oxidative DNA damage and metabolising enzymes in rat liver. Food Chemistry and Toxicology. 39(6): 533–540. 10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00170-8

Speroni, E., Cervellati, R., Dall’Acqua, S., Guerra, M.C., Greco, E., Govoni, P., et al., 2011. Gastroprotective effect and antioxidant properties of different Laurus nobilis L. leaf extracts. Journal of Medicinal Food. 14(5): 499–504. 10.1089/jmf.2010.0084

Srinivasan, K., 2013. Dietary spices as beneficial modulators of lipid profile in condition of metabolic disorders and disease. Food and Function. 4(4): 503–521. 10.1039/c2fo30249g

Stavinoha, R.C. and Vattem, D.A., 2015. Potential neuroprotective effects of cinnamon. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Prodocuts. 8: 24–46.

Stefanska, B., Rudnicka, K., Bednarek, A. and Fabianowska-Majewska, K., 2010. Hypo methylation and induction of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 by concurrent action of adenosine analogues and natural compounds in breast cancer cells. European Journal of Pharmacology. 638(1–3): 47–45. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.04.032

Stevenson, M., 1999. Commercializing safety and efficacy of home genetic tests. Journal of Biolaw and Business. 3(1): 29–39.

Surendran, S., Adaikalakoteswari, A., Saravanan, P., Shatwaan, I.A., Lovegrove, J.A. and Vimaleswaran, K.S., 2018. An update on vitamin B12-related gene polymorphisms and B12 status. Genes and Nutrition. 13: 2. 10.1186/s12263-018-0591-9

Syvertsen, C., Halse, J., Hoivik, H.O., Gaullier, J.M., Nurminiemi, M., Kristiansen, K., et al., 2007. The effect of 6 months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid on insulin resistance in overweight and obese. International Journal of Obesity. 31(7): 1148–1154. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0803482

Szymczak-Pajor, I. and Sliwinska, A., 2019. Analysis of association between vitamin D deficiency and insulin resistance. Nutrients. 11(4): 794. 10.3390/nu11040794

Tan, S., Wang, C., Lu, C., Zhao, B., Cui, Y., Shi, X., et al., 2009. Quercetin is able to demethylate the p16INK4a gene promoter. Chemotherapy. 55(1): 6–10. 10.1159/000166383

Tchombe, N.L., Louajri, A. and Benajiba, M.N., 2012. Therapeutical effects of ginger. ISESCO Journal of Science and Technology. 8: 64–69.

Thomas, P. and Fenech, M., 2009. Folate and vitamins B2, B6, and B12. In: Knasmüller, S., DeMarini, D.M., Johnson, I. and Gerhäuser, C., editors. Chemoprevention of cancer and DNA damage by dietary factors. John Wiley & Sons, US. pp. 417–433. 10.1002/9783527626588.ch25

Utkina, A.S. and Karagodin, V.P., 2021. Nutrigenomics as a tool for optimizing the composition of specialized food products by the efficiency criterion. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 677: 42050. 10.1088/1755-1315/677/4/042050

Uyeda, K., Yamashita, H. and Kawaguchi, T., 2002. Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP): a key regulator of glucose metabolism and fat storage. Biochemical Pharmacology. 63(12): 2075–2080. 10.1016/S0006-2952(02)01012-2

van Ommen, B. and Stierum, R., 2002. Nutrigenomics: exploiting systems biology in the nutrition and health arena. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 13(5): 517–521. 10.1016/S0958-1669(02)00349-X

Vidal, D.R., 2009. Transgenics, nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics in food. Food Science and Technology. 11(1): 10–12.

Vineis, P. and Christiani, D.C., 2004. Genetic testing for sale. Epidemiology. 15(1): 3–5. 10.1097/01.ede.0000101961.86080.f8

Wang, T., Feugang, J.M., Crenshaw, M.A., Regmi, N., Blanton, J.R. and Liao, S.F., 2017. A systems biology approach using transcriptomic data reveals genes and pathways in porcine skeletal muscle affected by dietary lysine. International Journal of Molecular Science. 18(4): 885. 10.3390/ijms18040885

Weng, C.Y., Wang, C.E., Xie, W.B., Xu, S.Y., Wang, Y.J. and Zheng, Y.G., 2021. Comparative proteome analysis of Actinoplanes utahensis grown on various saccharides based on 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Journal of Proteomics. 239: 104193. 10.1016/j.jprot.2021.104193

Yamashita, H., Takenoshita, M., Sakurai, M., Bruick, R.K., Henzel, W.J., Shillinglaw, W., et al., 2001. A glucose-responsive transcription factor that regulates carbohydrate metabolism in the liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98(16): 9116–9121. 10.1073/pnas.161284298

Yan, M., Song, Y., Wong, C.P., Hardin, K. and Ho, E., 2008. Zinc deficiency alters DNA damage response genes in normal human prostate epithelial cells. Journal of Nutrition. 138(4): 667–673. 10.1093/jn/138.4.667

Yang, Y., Liu, L., Naik, I., Braunstein, Z., Zhong, J. and Ren, B., 2017. Transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein in health and diseases. Frontiers in Immunology. 8: 1612. 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01612

Zhang, C., 2014. Essential functions of iron-requiring proteins in DNA replication, repair and cell cycle control. Protein & Cell. 5(10): 750–760. 10.1007/s13238-014-0083-7

Zhang, P., McGrath, B.C., Reinert, J., Olsen, D.S., Lei, L., Gill, S., et al., 2002. The GCN2 eIF2α kinase is required for adaptation to amino acid deprivation in mice. Molecular and Cell Biology. 22(19): 6681–6688. 10.1128/MCB.22.19.6681-6688.2002