Optimization of producing functional sponge cake using a combination extract of green tea, white tea, and ginger

Main Article Content

Zohreh Pourzafar
Amir Hossein Elhamirad
Masoud Shafafi Zenoozian
Mohammad Armin


ginger, response surface methodology, sponge cake, tea


Plant extracts play an important role in improving the quality properties and enhancing the shelf life of food products. In the present study, different concentrations of green tea (0–2%), white tea (0–2%), and ginger (0 to 1.5%) extracts were used to formulate a sponge cake. Response surface methodology was used to investigate cake quality attributes. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high coefficient of determination (R2; >0.95) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. The overall optimum area with high stability was found at a combined level of green tea (1.44%), white tea (1.71%), and ginger (0.75%) extracts.

Abstract 85 | PDF Downloads 142 HTML Downloads 47 XML Downloads 42


Ajila, C.M., Leelavathi, K.U.J.S. and Prasada Rao, U.J.S. 2008. Improvement of dietary fiber content and antioxidant properties in soft dough biscuits with the incorporation of mango peel powder. J Cereal Sci. 48(2): 319–326. 10.1016/j.jcs.2007.10.001

American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). 2000. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Methods 10-10B, 26-21A, 44-19, 44-08, and 54-40A, 10th ed.. AACC, St. Paul, MN.

Arı Akın, P., Tayfun, K.E., Tamer U. and Boyacı İ.H. 2021. Use of tea fibers as a source of dietary fiber in wheat flour and bread. Cereal Chem. 98(5): 1049–1058. 10.1002/cche.10444

Capannesi, C., Palchetti, I., Mascini, M. and Parenti, A. 2000. Electrochemical sensor and biosensor for polyphenols detection in olive oils. Food Chem. 71(4): 553–562. 10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00211-9

Edwards, W.P. 2007. The Science of Bakery Products. Royal Society of Chemistry. London. 10.1039/9781847557797

Elkatry, H.O, Ahmed, A.R., El-Beltagi, H.S., Mohamed, H.I. and Eshak, N.S. 2022. Biological activities of grape seed by--products and their potential use as natural sources of food additives in the production of balady bread. Foods. 11(13): 1948. 10.3390/foods11131948

Gramza-Michałowska, A, Kobus-Cisowska, J., Kmiecik, D., Korczak, J., Helak, B., Dziedzic, D. and Górecka, D. 2016. Antioxidative potential, nutritional value and sensory profiles of confectionery fortified with green and yellow tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). Food Chem. 211: 448–454. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.048

Gularte, M.A., Hera, Esther D.L., Gómez, M. and Rosell, C.M. 2012. Effect of different fibers on batter and gluten-free layer cake properties. Food Sci Tech (LWT). 48(2): 209–214. 10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.015.

Hajiaghaalipour, F., Kanthimathi, M.S., Sanusi, J. and Rajarajeswaran, J. 2015. White tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibits proliferation of the colon cancer cell line, HT-29, activates caspases and protects DNA of normal cells against oxidative damage. Food Chem. 169: 401–410. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.005

Hollyer, T, Boon, H., Georgousis, A., Smith, M. and Einarson, A. 2002. The use of CAM by women suffering from nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. BMC Comp. Altern. Med. 2(1): 1–6. 10.1186/1472-6882-2-5

Horanni, R. and Engelhardt, U.H. 2013. Determination of amino acids in white, green, black, oolong, pu-erh teas and tea products. J Food Comp Anal. 31(1): 94–100. 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.03.005

Indriani, S., Karim, M.S.B.A., Nalinanon, S. and Karnjanapratum, S. 2020. Quality characteristics of protein-enriched brown rice flour and cake affected by Bombay locust (Patanga succincta L.) powder fortification. Food Sci Tech (LWT). 119: 108876. 10.1016/j.lwt.2019.108876

Izzreen, I and Noriham, A. 2011. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of some Malaysian herbal aqueous extracts as compared with synthetic antioxidants and ascorbic acid in cakes. Int Food Res J. 18(2).

Javanmardi, J., Stushnoff, C., Locke, E. and Vivanco, J.M. 2003. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of Iranian Ocimum accessions. Food Chem. 83(4): 547–550. 10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00151-1

Kailasapathy, K.. 2006. Survival of free and encapsulated probiotic bacteria and their effect on the sensory properties of yoghurt. Food Sci Tech (LWT). 39(10): 1221–1227. 10.1016/j.lwt.2005.07.013

Keating, A. and Chez, R.A. 2002. Ginger syrup as an antiemetic in early pregnancy. Altern Ther Health Med. 8(5): 89.

Khaki, A., Fathiazad, F., Nouri, M, Khaki, A.A., Khamenehi, H.J. and Hamadeh, M. 2009. Evaluation of androgenic activity of allium cepa on spermatogenesis in the rat. Folia Morphol. 68(1): 45–51.

Khoshnoudi-Nia, S., Sharif, N. and Jafari, S.M. 2020. Loading of phenolic compounds into electrospun nanofibers and-electrosprayed nanoparticles. Trends Food Sci Tech. 95: 59–74. 10.1016/j.tifs.2019.11.013

Kırbaş, Z., Kumcuoglu, S. and Tavman, S. 2019. Effects of apple, orange and carrot pomace powders on gluten-free batter rheology and cake properties. J Food Sci Tech. 56(2): 914–926. 10.1007/s13197-018-03554-z.

Lavelli, V and Corti, S. 2011. Phloridzin and other phytochemicals in apple pomace: stability evaluation upon dehydration and storage of dried product. Food Chem. 129(4): 1578–1583. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.06.011.

Lenka, C., Kumari, T. and Pradhan, T. 2020. Fortification of cake with chickpea flour as a protein enhancer. J Res ANGRAU. 48(3): 49–56. 10/epubs.icar.org.in/index.php/TJRA/article/view/133650

Luo, Q., Zhang, J.-R., Li, H.-B. Wu, D.-T., Geng F., Corke, H., Wei, X.-L. and Gan, R.-Y. 2020. Green extraction of antioxidant polyphenols from green tea (Camellia sinensis). Antioxidants. 9(9): 785. 10.3390/antiox9090785

Ma, Q., Cai, S., Jia, Y., Sun, X., Yi, J. and Du, J. 2020. Effects of hot-water extract from vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) on acrylamide formation, quality and consumer acceptability of bread. Foods. 9(3): 373. 10.3390/foods9030373

Mahmoudi, L., Tavakoilpour, H., Roozbeh-Nasiraie, L. and Kalbasi-Ashtari, A. 2020. Ultrasonication and encapsulation of Butcher broom (Ruscus Hyrcanus L.) extract and its bioactive effects on qualitative properties, oxidative stability and shelf life of cake. Sustain Chem Pharm. 17: 100295. 10.1016/j.scp.2020.100295

Moradi Lake, M, Taleb, A. and Saidi, M. 2008. Assesment of performance and saifty gingebir on reduce of nausea and vomiting through pregnancy. Struct Rev Meta-anal Paiesh J 7(4): 345–354.

Onacik-Gür, S. and Zbikowska, A. 2022. The effect of green tea extract and oleogels on the physico-chemical properties and oxidative stability of short-dough biscuits during storage. Food Sci Tech (LWT). 172: 114197. 10.1016/j.lwt.2022.114197

O'Neill, M., Rebane, D. and Lester, C. 2004. Barriers to healthier eating in a disadvantaged community. Health Edu J. 63(3): 220–228. 10.1177/001789690406300303

Pinto, D., Castro, I., Vicente, A., Bourbon, A.I. and Cerqueira, M.Â. 2014. Functional bakery products. In: Bakery Products Science and Technology, John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 431–452. 10.1002/9781118792001.ch25

Pourshoaib, S.J., Ghatrami, E.R. and Shamekhi, M.A. 2022. Comparing ultrasonic-and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of phenolic compounds from Kabkab date seed (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and stepwise regression analysis of extracts antioxidant activity. Sustain Chem. Pharm. 30: 100871. 10.1016/j.scp.2022.100871

Sabet G., Maryam, M.R.S.A., Sharifi, A. and Armin, M. 2022. Effect of fat replacement with apple pomace fiber on the chemical and textural properties of the cake. J Food Sci Tech (Iran). 18(119): 259–274. 10.52547/fsct.18.119.259

Senanayake, C.M., Algama, C.H., Wimalasekara, R.L., Weerakoon, W.N.M.T.D.N., Jayathilaka, N. and Seneviratne, K.N. 2019. Improvement of oxidative stability and microbial shelf life of vanilla cake by coconut oil meal and sesame oil meal phenolic extracts. J Food Qual. 2019: 1–8. 10.1155/2019/1263629

Senanayake, C.M., Hapugaswatta, H., Jayathilaka, N. and Seneviratne, K.N. 2018. Phenolic extracts of the leaves of Psidium guineense Sw. improve the shelf life of sunflower oil and baked cake and antioxidant status of Wistar rats. J Food Biochem. 42(6): e12632. 10.1111/jfbc.12632

Serin, S. and Sayar, S. 2016. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product. Food Sci Tech. 37: 25–32. 10.1590/1678-457x.05516

Shahidi, B., Sharifi, A., Nasiraie, L.R. Niakousari, M., and Ahmadi, M. 2020. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds extracts: ranking extraction systems based on fuzzy logic method. Sustain Chem. Pharm. 16: 100245. 10.1016/j.scp.2020.100245

Sharifi, A. and Khoshnoudi-Nia, S. 2022. Ranking novel extraction systems of seedless barberry (Berberis vulgaris) bioactive compounds with fuzzy logic-based term weighting scheme. Sustain Chem Pharm. 25: 100561. 10.1016/j.scp.2021.100561

Shukla, Y. and Singh, M. 2007. Cancer preventive properties of-ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol. 45(5): 683–690. 10.1016/j.fct.2006.11.002

Sinija, V.R. and Mishra, H.N.. 2008. Green tea: health benefits. J Nutr Environ Med. 17(4): 232–242. 10.1080/13590840802518785

Siro, I., Kapolna, E., Kapolna, B. and Lugasi, A. 2008. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance—a review. Appetite. 51(3): 456–467. 10.1016/j.appet.2008.05.060

Stone, H. and Sidel, J.L. 2004. Sensory Evaluation Practices. Elsevier, CA.

Taglieri, I., Bedini, S., Zinnai, A., Sanmartin, C., Conti, B., Farina, P., Ortega, R.D.C., Leo, M.D., Braca, A. and Tavarini, S. 2022. Effects of flaxseed cake fortification on bread shelf life, and its possible use as feed for Tenebrio molitor larvae in a circular economy: preliminary results. J Sci Food Agric. 102(4): 1736–1743. 10.1002/jsfa.11491

Temple, N.J. 2022. A rational definition for functional foods: a perspective. Front Nutr. 9. 10.3389/fnut.2022.957516

Timoshenkova, I., Moskvicheva, E., Fedinishina, E. and Bernavskaya, M. 2020. Use of green tea for the production of sponge cake. E3S Web Conf. 161: 1091, p. 6. 10.1051/e3sconf/202016101091

Trinh, T.K. and Kang, L.-S. 2010. Application of response surface method as an experimental design to optimize coagulation tests. Environ Eng Res. 15(2): 63–70. 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.063

Usman, M., Ahmed, S., Mehmood, A., Bilal, M., Patil, P.J., Akram, K. and Farooq, U. 2020. Effect of apple pomace on nutrition,-rheology of dough and cookies quality. J Food Sci Tech. 57(9): 3244–3251. 10.1007/s13197-020-04355-z

Yuanita, T., Listiana, I.D.A., Prasetyo, I., Widodo, P.N., Tedja, L., Soetojo, A. and Bhardwaj, A. 2022. Comparison of the effect of calcium hydroxide combination with cocoa pod husk extract and green tea extract on C-Fos and Dmp-1 expression in exposed dental pulp. J Int Dent Med Res. 15(4): 1516–1521.