A review of nutritional implications of bioactive compounds of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), their biological activities and nano-formulations

Main Article Content

Muhammad Ishfaq
Wanying Hu
Zhihua Hu
Yurong Guan
Ruihong Zhang


absorption, bioactive compounds, biological activities, ginger, nano-formulations


Ginger is a rhizome of the family Zingiberaceae and is one of the most commonly used spices in food and beverages worldwide. The pharmacological activities of ginger, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and protective effects against pain and gastrointestinal tract disorders, are primarily attributed to its phenolic compounds. However, knowledge about the mechanisms of toxicity, absorption, molecular targets, and dose–response relationship of ginger in human clinical studies is still elusive. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current literature in the context of bioactive compounds and biological activities of ginger. Furthermore, recent findings regarding the absorption, tissue distribution, and nano-formulations of ginger bioactive compounds are discussed. The current in vitro and in vivo studies identified and validated ginger extracts and bioactive compounds, including gingerols, zingiberene, shogaols, and zingerone. Despite the data available regarding the pharmacological uses of ginger together with a deep mechanistic approach about the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and dose-response studies in humans is yet to be provided. Studies on the absorption, bioavailability, adverse reactions, and safe doses of the bioactive compounds of ginger will additionally improve its therapeutic applications. Nonetheless, the use of nano-formulations of bioactive compounds of ginger will be a more effective strategy in drug delivery. These novel evidences may bring ginger to the forefront of nutraceuticals for the treatment and/or prevention of various human health disorders.

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