Composition and nutritional evaluation of amino acids in Mimai qu rice wines

Main Article Content

Kaizheng Zhang
Wenchi Wu
Wei Zou
Zhenhui Kang
Qin Yan
Yue Qin


brewed wine, cluster analysis, linear regression analysis, principal component analysis, ratio coefficient method


An amino acid analyzer was used to detect free amino acids (FAA) in Mimai Qu rice wines (SMW and DMW) and control wine samples (Chinese rice wine [CRW] and Japanese sake [JNS]). It was found that CRW had the highest total amino acid (TAA) content (~2814 mg/L), followed by SMW (~2509 mg/L) and DMW (~1474 mg/L), while JNS had the least (~917 mg/L). Amino acid ratio coefficient method (SRCAA), linear regression method, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluating the nutritional value of amino acids in wine samples, giving similar results. SMW had the highest nutritional value, followed by CRW and DMW and JNS.

Abstract 294 | PDF Downloads 205 HTML Downloads 43 XML Downloads 593


Biglari, F., Alkarkhi, A.F.M. and Easa, A.M., 2009. Cluster analysis of antioxidant compounds in dates (phoenix dactylifera): effect of long-term cold storage. Food Chem. 112(4): 998–1001. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.063

Brown, S., 2017. The chemometrics revolution re-examined. J Chemomet. 31(1): 1–23. 10.1002/cem.2864

Cui, Y., Jiang, Z., Sun, J.Y., Yu, J., Li, M.H. and Li, M.J., 2014. Enantiomeric purity determination of (L)-amino acids with pre-column derivatization and chiral stationary phase: development and validation of the method. Food Chem. 158: 401–407. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.133

FAO/WHO, 1973. Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Adhoc Expert Committee. FAO Nutritional Meeting Report Series No. 52, Technical Report Series No. 522 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Rome, Italy.

González-Castro, M.J., López-Hernández, J., Simal-Lozano, J. and Oruna-Concha, M.J., 1997. Determination of amino acids in green beans by derivatization with phenylisothiocianate and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromat Sci. 35: 181–185. 10.1093/chromsci/35.4.181

Govender, P. and Sivakumar, V., 2019. Application of k-means and hierarchical clustering techniques for analysis of air pollution: a review (1980–2019). Atmos Pollution Res. 11(1): 40–56. 10.1016/j.apr.2019.09.009

Granato, D., Santos, J.S., Escher, G.B., Ferreira, B.L. and Maggio, R.M., 2018. Use of principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for multivariate association between bioactive compounds and functional properties in foods: a critical perspective. Trends Food Sci Technol. 72: 83–90. 10.1016/j.tifs.2017.12.006

Jiao, A.Q., Xu, X.M. and Jin, Z.Y., 2017. Research progress on the brewing techniques of new-type rice wine. Food Chem. 215: 508–515. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.014

Kabelová, I., Dvořáková, M., Čížková, H., Dostálek, P. and Melzoch, K., 2008. Determination of free amino acids in beers: a comparison of Czech and foreign brands. J Food Comp Anal. 21(8): 736–741. 10.1016/j.jfca.2008.06.007

Luo, T., Ke, J., Xie, Y.F. and Dong, Y.M., 2017. Determination of underivatized amino acids to evaluate quality of beer by capillary electrophoresis with online sweeping technique. J Food Drug Anal. 25(4): 789–797. 10.1016/j.jfda.2017.03.003

McGovern, P.E., Zhang, J.Z., Tang, J.G., Zhang, Z.Q., Hall, G.R. and Moreau, R.A., 2004. Fermented beverages of pre-and proto-historic China. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. 101(51): 17593–17598. 10.1073/pnas.0407921102

Mimura, N., Isogai, A., Iwashita, K., Bamba, T. and Fukusaki, E., 2014. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based component profiling and quality prediction for Japanese sake. J Biosci Bioeng. 118(4): 406–414. 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2014.04.006

Okada, C., Iso, H., Ishihara, J., Maruyama, K., Sawada, N. and Tsugane, S., 2017. Validity and reliability of a self-administered food frequency questionnaire for the JPHC study: the assessment of amino acid intake. J Epidemiol. 27(5): 242–247. 10.1016/

Okuda, M., 2019. Rice used for Japanese sake making. Biosci, Biotechnol Biochem. 83(8): 1–14. 10.1080/09168451.2019.1574552

Omar, M.M.A., Elbashir, A.A. and Schmitz, O.J., 2017. Capillary electrophoresis method with UV-detection for analysis of free amino acids concentrations in food. Food Chem 214: 300–307. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.07.060

Redruello, B., Ladero, V., del Rio, B., Fernández, M., Martin, M.C. and Alvarez, M.A., 2017. A UHPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of biogenic amines, amino acids and ammonium ions in beer. Food Chem 217: 117–124. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.040

Sato, J. and Kohsaka, R., 2017. Japanese sake, and evolution of technology: a comparative view with wine and its implications for regional branding and tourism. J Ethnic Foods 4(2): 88–93. 10.1016/j.jef.2017.05.005

Shin, E.C., Craft, B.D., Pegg, R.B., Phillips, R.D. and Eitenmiller, R.R., 2010. Chemometric approach to fatty acid profiles in runner-type peanut cultivars by principal component analysis (PCA). Food Chem. 119(3): 1262–1270. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.07.058

Tang, Q.Y. and Zhang, C.X., 2012. Data processing system (DPS) software with experimental design, statistical analysis and data mining developed for use in entomological research. Insect Sci. 20: 254–260. 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2012.01519.x

Wang, J.G., 1998. The nutritional value and healthcare function of Chinese Rice Wine. China Brewing 6: 34–40 (in Chinese).

Wang, J.G. and Xu, L., 2005. Features of millet wine and its prospects. Jiangsu Condim Subsidiary Food. 22(6): 5–9.

Xu, Y., Chen, S., Wang, D. and Zhao, G.A., 2013. Research progress in the producing technology of Chinese yellow rice wine. Liquor-Making Sci Technol. 12: 1–8 (in Chinese).

Yamashita, M., 1997. The appearance on earth and development of cereal Koji and cereal alcholic beverages. J Soc Brewing Japan. 92(5): 310–321. 10.6013/jbrewsocjapan1988.92.310

Yang, X., 2021. Marketing strategy analysis model of Huangjiu enterprises based on SWOT. Liquor-Making Sci Technol. 2: 123–127 (in Chinese).

Ye, D.D., Sun, L.J., Zou, B.R., Zhang, Q., Tan, W.Y. and Che, W.K., 2018. Non-destructive prediction of protein content in wheat using NIRS. Spectrochimica Acta Mol Biomol Spectro. 189: 463–472. 10.1016/j.saa.2017.08.055

Zhang, K.Z., Li, Q., Wu, W.C., Yang, J.G. and Zou, W., 2019a. Wheat Qu and its production technology, microbiota, flavor, and metabolites. J Food Sci. 84(9): 2373–2386. 10.1111/1750-3841.14768

Zhang, K.Z., Pan, Y.F., Zou, W., Zhou, L.H., Wu, Z.Y. and Zhang, W.X., 2017. Nutritive assessment of amino acids for three Chinese Zajius produced from hull-less barley. J Inst Brewing. 123(4): 587–593. 10.1002/jib.464

Zhang, K.Z., Yang, J.G., Qiao, Z.W., Cao, X.Z., Luo, Q.C. and Zhao, J.S., 2019b. Assessment of β-glucans, phenols, flavor and volatile profiles of hulless barley wine originating from highland areas of China. Food Chem. 293: 32–40. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.04.053