Citrus species: Modern functional food and nutraceutical-based product ingredient

Main Article Content

Mariarosaria Leporini
Rosa Tundis
Vincenzo Sicari
Monica Rosa Loizzo


bioactive compounds, by-products, citrus, health properties, juice, peels, pulp, seeds


Citrus is the most cultivated fruit crop in the world and occupies a place of considerable importance in the country’s economy. Almost 33% of the citrus fruits are processed for juice production; however, a great amount of wastes, including peels, segment membranes, and seeds are also produced. Indeed, citrus fruits consist of 45% juice, 26% pulp, 27% peels, and 2% seeds. Pruning, a cultural practice involving the removal of tree branches and limbs, was applied to improve fruit’s quality. A large amount of leaves are produced through pruning. These agri-food matrices contain a wide range of bioactive phytochemicals compared to fruits. The present review covers the past 5 years of research carried out in chemistry, health properties, and applications in food and nutraceutical industries of all portions of citrus fruit and its major bioactive compounds. Additionally, patents are also included.

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