Optimization of stir-baked technology for Flos Sophorae Immaturus tea according to quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal design method and quality evaluation

Main Article Content

Shang Fanghong
Longyun Li
Song Xuhong
Tan Jun
Wang Jirui
Chen Gang

Keywords

Flos Sophorae Immaturus, quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal design, quality, stir-baked

Abstract

This study aimed to optimize the stir-baked technology for Flos Sophorae Immaturus tea (FSIT) and evaluate the quality of FSIT. The optimum stir-baked conditions were found to be as follows: amount, 3.9 kg; rotation speed, 400 r/min; and time required to reach the temperature of 120°C, 5 min and maintained for 3.9 min after adding 15 mL of 1% stevioside. The machine-made FSIT soup was clear and golden in color, with charred taste, no bitterness, no peculiar smell, and improved sensory quality under the above-mentioned conditions. Heavy metal contents and microorganisms did not exceed the national standards.

Abstract 25 | PDF Downloads 17 XML Downloads 2 HTML Downloads 2

References

Chua, L.S., 2013. A review on plant-based rutin extraction methods and its pharmacological activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 150: 805–817. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jep.2013.10.036
He, X.R., Bai, Y.J. and Zhao Z.F., 2016. Local and traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Sophora japonica L.: a review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 187: 160–182. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.014
Hwang, C. L. and Yoon, K. P., 1981. Multiple attribute decision making: methods and applications. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Jiang, Q.B. and Chen, X.Z., 2008. Extraction of rutin by microwave irradiation with alkali-base and development of compound health care tea from pagoda-tree flowers. Journal of Central South University of Forestry & Technology 28(1): 158–161. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-923X.2008.01.036
Krishna, P.M., Rao, K.N.V., Sandhya, S. and Banji, D., 2012. A review on phytochemical, ethnomedical and pharmacological studies on genus Sophora, Fabaceae. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. Braz. J. Pharm. 22, 1145–1154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S0102-695X2012005000043
Li, Q.H., Lung, Z.Q. and Wang, J.K., 2017. The chemical components, Chinese medicine processing and pharmacological effect on sophora flower bud. Acta Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology 45(3): 112–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.19664/j. cnki.1002-2392.2017.03.035
Liu, J.L., Li, L.Y. and He, G.H., 2016. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction conditions for five major bioactive compounds from Flos Sophorae Immaturus (cultivars of Sophora japonica L.) using response surface methodology. Molecules 21: 296. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules21030296
Liu, J.L., Li, L.Y., He, G.H., Zhang X., Song X.H., Cui G.L., et al. 2018. Quality evaluation of Flos Sophorae Immaturus from different habitats by HPLC coupled with chemometrics and anti-oxidant ability. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 49(19): 4644-4652. https://doi.org/10.7501/j.issn.0253-2670.2018.19.027
Liu, D.N., Nie, K.L., Du, X., Chang, J. and Li, S.L., 2014. Sensory evaluation and chemical composition of Matcha. Food Science 35(2): 168–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.7506/spkx1002-6630-201402031
National Pharmacopoeia Commission. 2015. Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China: part I. China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing.
Ning, D.X., Yan, C.P., Zhao, Y.K, Yang, X., Yang, L.P., Li, N., et al. 2018. Study on agronomic, economic and qualitative characters of different peanut varieties with TOPSIS method evalua-tion. Journal of Shanxi Agricultural Sciences 46(12): 1986–1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1002-2481.2018.12.04
Sun, R., Zhang, Z.M., Xing, Q.H., Liu, M.M. and Zhuo, W.Y., 2016. Optimization of breed processing technology for flour of wheat Pubing 9946. Journal of Northwest A & F University (Natural Science Edition) 44(5): 185–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.13207/j. cnki.jnwafu.2016.05.025
Tan, J., Li, L.Y., Wang, J.R., Ding, G. and Xu, J., 2018. Study on quality evaluation of Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Natural Product Research and Development 30: 2166–2174, 2202. http://dx.doi. org/10.16333/j.1001-6880.2018.12.021
Tang, Q.Y., 2010. DPS© data processing system. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 1231–1233.
Wang, H.D., Wang X.K., Bi, L.F., Wang, Y., Fan, J.L., Zhang, F.C., et al. 2019. Multi-objective optimization of water and fertilizer management for potato production in sandy areas of northern China based on TOPSIS. Field Crops Research 240: 55-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2019.06.005
Wang, X.T. and Wang, X.H., 2009. Development of Sophora japonica L. and honey healthy compound beverage. Hubei Agricultural Sciences 48(11): 2827–2830. http://dx.doi.org/10.14088/j.cnki. issn0439-8114.2009.11.010
Xie, Z., Lam, S.C., Wu, J.W., Yang, D.P. and Xu, X.J., 2014. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of flavonidsoids in Flos Sophorae Immaturus by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS combine with chemometrics analysis. Anal Methods 6: 4328–4335. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4AY00289J
Ye, X.Y. and Liu, Q.E., 2017. Optimization of extraction technology for protein from Boletel by quadratic regression rotation-orthogonal combination design [J]. Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences 31(4): 728–735. http://dx.doi. org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2017. 04.0728
Zhou, Y. and Xia, X.K., 2011. Research on extracting technology of total polysaccharide from Flos Sophorae Immaturus. Hubei Agricultural Sciences 50(15): 3161–3163. http://dx.doi. org/10.14088/j.cnki.issn0439-8114.2011.15.030