Exploring the potential of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) flour as a fat mimetic in biscuits with improved physicochemical and nutritional characteristics and anti-diabetic properties
Main Article Content
anti-diabetic potential, antioxidant, bottle gourd flour, dough rheology, physical properties, sensory profile
Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) is a naturally rich source of several phytochemicals that play a vital role in the prevention of diseases. In the present study, the effect of bottle gourd flour (BGF) as a fat mimetic in biscuits at different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25, and 50% w/w) was explored. Rheological properties, the microstructure of dough, bioactive compounds, anti-diabetic potential, storage stability, and the nutritional, physical, and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The addition of BGF in wheat flour (WF) showed increased water absorption (58.70–72.43%) and reduced dough stability time (11.71–5.01 min). Trough (1165.11–1096.10 Torque) and set back viscosities (471.21–448.09 Torque) decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with the increased level of BGF in WF. Furthermore, gluten content was also reduced. The baking process decreased the IC50 values, although total phenol content and total flavonoid content decreased. Shelf life study of 2 months revealed no significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference in bioactive compounds, and alpha-amylase inhibition activity of fat-replaced biscuits. Moreover, the anti-hyperglycemic activity of BGF-WF biscuits in human subjects also showed positive results. The percentage increase in both peroxide value (0.2–2.87 milliequivalent O2/kg of fat) and free fatty acid (0.1–0.9%) during storage was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower than control biscuits (0.9–5.53 mill-equivalent O2/kg of fat and 0.2–1.1%), which correlates to the enhanced activity of bioactive compounds in BGF-WF biscuits, which in turn relates to decreasing the rate of oxidation. The crude fiber and protein contents of BGF-WF biscuits were improved from 0.21 to 17.30% and 11.20 to 18.70%, respectively. Sensory and textural performance exhibited that the biscuits were acceptable after fat replacement of up to 15% BGF. Based on this study, BGF may be suggested as an excellent natural fat replacer to be used in nutraceuticals and functional foods.
AACC, 1999, Approved Methods of the American Association Cereal Chemist Chemist: St. Pauls.
Ahmad, M., Baba, W. N., A Wani, T., Gani, A., Gani, A. and Shah, U., 2015. Effect of green tea powder on thermal, rheological & functional properties of wheat flour and physical, nutraceutical & sensory analysis of cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52(9): 5799–5807. 10.1007/s13197-014-1701-3
Ali, R., Saeed, S.M.G., Ali, S.A., Sayed, S.A., Ahmed, R. and Mobin, L., 2018. Effect of black gram flour as egg replacer on microstructure of biscuit dough and its impact on edible qualities. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 12(3): 1641–1647. 10.1007/s11694-018-9779-3
AOAC, 2001. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International, 16th ed., edited, The Association, Gaithersburg, MD.
Attar, U. and Ghane, S., 2019. In vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiacetylcholine esterase, anticancer activities and RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics from the wild bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.). South African Journal of Botonay. 125: 360–370. 10.1016/j.sajb.2019.08.004
Bae, W., Lee, B., Hou, G.G. and Lee, S., 2014. Physicochemical characterization of whole-grain wheat flour in a frozen dough system for bake off technology. Journal of Cereal Science. 60(3): 520–525. 10.1016/j.jcs.2014.08.006
Bialek, M., Rutkowska, J., Bialek, A. and Adamska, A., 2016. Oxidative stability of lipid fraction of cookies enriched with chokeberry polyphenols extract. Polish J Food and Nutrition Science. 66(2): 77–84. 10.1515/pjfns-2015-0027
Caleja, C., Barros, L., Antonio, A.L., Oliveira, M.B.P. and Ferreira, I.C., 2017. A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits. Food Chemistry. 216: 342–346. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.075
Camelo-Méndez, G.A., Agama-Acevedo, E., Rosell, C.M., Perea-Flores, M.D.J. and Bello-Pérez, L.A., 2018. Starch and antioxidant compound release during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of gluten-free pasta. Food Chemistry. 263: 201–207. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.075
Dachana, K., Rajiv, J., Indrani, D. and Prakash, J., 2010. Effect of dried moringa (Moringa oleifera lam) leaves on rheological, microstructural, nutritional, textural and organoleptic characteristics of cookies. Journal of Food Quality. 33(5): 660–677. 10.1111/j.1745-4557.2010.00346.x
Elshibani, F., Alamami, A., Alshalmani, S., El Naili, E.A., Gehawe, H.A., Sharkasi, M.A. and Elremali, N., 2020. Estimation of phenolic content, flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of Capparis spinosa L. Journal of Pharmacognocy and Photochemistry. 9: 24–28.
Fombang, E.N. and Saa, R.W., 2016. Antihyperglycemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf functional tea in rat models and human subjects. Food and Nutri Sci. 7(11): 1021. 10.4236/fns.2016.711099
Food and Agricultural Organization, 1998. Carbohydrates in human nutrition: report of a joint FAO. World Health Orginization. United States
Gawlik-Dziki, U., Świeca, M., Dziki, D., Sęczyk, Ł., Złotek, U., Różyło, R., Kaszuba, K., Ryszawy, D. and Czyż, J., 2014. Anticancer and antioxidant activity of bread enriched with broccoli sprouts. BioMed Research International. 2014: 608053. 10.1155/2014/608053
Gbenga-Fabusiwa, F. J., Oladele, E. P., Oboh, G., Adefegha, S. A. and Oshodi, A. A., 2018. Polyphenol contents and antioxidants activities of biscuits produced from ginger-enriched pigeon pea–wheat composite flour blends. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 42(4): e12526. 10.1111/jfbc.12526
Hasmadi, M., Matanjun, P., Salwa, I., Siti, F., Mansoor, A.H. and Ainnur, S.R., 2014. The effect of seaweed composite flour on the textural properties of dough and bread, J Applied Phycol. 26(2): 1057–1062. 10.1007/s10811-013-0082-8
Indrani, D., Soumya, C., Rajiv, J. and Venkateswara Rao, G., 2010. Multigrain bread–its dough rheology, microstructure, quality and nutritional characteristics. J of Texture Studies. 41(3): 302–319. 10.1111/j.1745-4603.2010.00230.x
Ismail, T., Akhtar, S., Riaz, M. and Ismail, A., 2014. Effect of pomegranate peel supplementation on nutritional, organoleptic and stability properties of cookies. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 65(6): 661–666. 10.3109/09637486.2014.908170
Jan, U., Gani, A., Ahmad, M., Shah, U., Baba, W.N., Masoodi, F., Maqsood, S., Gani, A., Wani, I.A. and Wani, S., 2015. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 52(10): 6334–6344. 10.1007/s13197-015-1773-8
Klunklin, W. and Savage, G., 2018. Physicochemical, antioxidant properties and in vitro digestibility of wheat–purple rice flour mixtures. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 53(8): 1962–1971. 10.1111/ijfs.13785
Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J., Magala, M. and Kuchtová, V., 2014. Effect of apple pomace powder addition on farinographic properties of wheat dough and biscuits quality. Chemistry Papers. 68(8): 1059–1065. 10.2478/s11696-014-0567-1
Kuchtová, V., Kohajdová, Z., Karovičová, J. and Lauková, M., 2018. Physical, textural and sensory properties of cookies incorporated with grape skin and seed preparations. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Science. 68(4): 309–317. 10.2478/pjfns-2018-0004
Lawless, H.T. and Heymann, H., 2010. Sensory evaluation of food principles and practices, descriptive analysis, 2nd ed., Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 378–441. New York, USA.
Luan, N.K. and Hong, N.N., 2016. Antioxidant activity and anti-hyperglycemic effect of lagenaria siceraria fruit extract. Journal of Food Science and Engineering 6: 26–31. 10.17265/2159-5828/2016.01.004
Mabogo, F., Mashau, M. and Ramashia, S., 2021. Effect of partial replacement of wheat flour with unripe banana flour on the functional, thermal, and physicochemical characteristics of flour and biscuits. International Food Research Journal. 28: 138–147.
Macedo, L.L., Vimercati, W.C., da Silva Araújo, C., Saraiva, S.H. and Teixeira, L.J.Q., 2020. Effect of drying air temperature on drying kinetics and physicochemical characteristics of dried banana. Journal of Food Process Engineering 43: e13451. 10.1111/jfpe.13451
McRae, M. P., 2018. Dietary fiber intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. 17(1): 44-53. 10.1016/j.jcm.2017.11.002
Mildner-Szkudlarz, S., Bajerska, J., Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R. and Górecka, D., 2013. White grape pomace as a source of dietary fibre and polyphenols and its effect on physical and nutraceutical characteristics of wheat biscuits. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93(2): 389–395. 10.1002/jsfa.5774
Morais, M. P. d., Caliari, M., Nabeshima, E. H., BATISTA, J. E. R., CAMPOS, M. R. H. and Soares Junior, M., S. 2018. Storage stability of sweet biscuit elaborated with recovered potato starch from effluent of fries industry. Food Science and Technology. 38: 216–222. 10.1590/fst.32916
Navaratne, S. and Senaratne, C., 2014. Controlling of auto oxidation process of soft dough biscuits using flavonoids extracted from green tea (Camellia sinensis). International Journal of Science and Research. 3(4): 425–428.
Palamthodi, S., Kadam, D. and Lele, S., 2019. Physicochemical and functional properties of ash gourd/bottle gourd beverages blended with jamun. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 56(1): 473–482. 10.1007/s13197-018-3509-z
Patel, A.S. and Pradhan, R.C., 2015. Quality ranking of bottle gourd seed cake powder incorporated biscuits using fuzzy analysis of sensory attribute, BIOINFOLET-A Quarterly Journal of Life Sciences 12(4a): 901–908.
Patel, A. R., Nicholson, R. A. and Marangoni, A. G., 2020. Applications of fat mimetics for the replacement of saturated and hydrogenated fat in food products. Current Opinion in Food Science. 33: 61–68. 10.1016/j.cofs.2019.12.008
Pattnaik, M., Pandey, P., Martin, G.J., Mishra, H.N. and Ashokkumar, M., 2021. Innovative technologies for extraction and microencapsulation of bioactives from plant-based food waste and their applications in functional food development. Foods. 10: 279. 10.3390/foods10020279
Petrus, A., Hemalatha, S.S. and Suguna, G., 2012. Isolation and characterisation of the antioxidant phenolic metabolites of Boerhaavia erecta L. leaves. Jouranl of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 4(7): 1856.
Pintado, T., Muñoz-González, I., Salvador, M., Ruiz-Capillas, C. and Herrero, A.M., 2021. Phenolic compounds in emulsion gel-based delivery systems applied as animal fat replacers in frankfurters: physico-chemical, structural and microbiological approach. Food Chemistry. 340: 128095. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128095
Poilish Standard, P., 1966. Edible vegetable fats – refined vegetable oils. PN-A-86908.
Ram, S. and Singh, R., 2004. Solvent retention capacities of Indian wheats and their relationship with cookie-making quality. Cereal Chemistry. 81(1): 128–133. 10.1094/cchem.2004.81.1.128
Saeed, S.M.G., Ali, S.A., Ali, R., Naz, S., Sayeed, S.A., Mobin, L. and Ahmed, R., 2020a. Utilization of Vigna mungo flour as fat mimetic in biscuits: its impact on antioxidant profile, polyphenolic content, storage stability, and quality attributes. Legume Science 2: e58. 10.1002/leg3.58
Saeed, S.M.G., Ali, S.A., Ali, R., Sayeed, S.A., Mobin, L. and Ahmed, R., 2020b. Exploring the potential of black gram (Vigna mungo) flour as a fat replacer in biscuits with improved physicochemical, microstructure, phytochemicals, nutritional and sensory attributes. SN Applied Science. 2: 1–17. 10.1007/s42452-020-03797-6
Saeed, S.M.G., Tayyaba, S., Ali, S.A., Tayyab, S., Sayeed, S.A., Ali, R., Mobin, L. and Naz, S., 2020c. Evaluation of the potential of Lotus root (Nelumbo nucifera) flour as a fat mimetic in biscuits with improved functional and nutritional properties. CyTA-Journal of Food. 18: 624–634. 10.1080/19476337.2020.1812727
Saeed, S.M.G., Urooj, S., Ali, S.A., Ali, R., Mobin, L., Ahmed, R. and Sayeed, S.A., 2021. Impact of the incorporation of date pit flour an underutilized biowaste in dough and its functional role as a fat replacer in biscuits. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 45: e15218. 10.1111/jfpp.15218
Saini, C.S. and Sharma, H.K., 2018. Process development of bottle gourd sweetmeat by microwave heating: changes in rheological, textural, sensory and morphological parameters. Food Biosciences. 24: 95–102. 10.1016/j.fbio.2018.05.009
Saka, İ., Özkaya, H. and Özkaya, B., 2020. Potential utilization of bulgur bran as a source of dietary fiber in cookies. Cereal Chemistry. 97: 930–939. 10.1002/cche.10315
Salar, R. K. and Purewal, S. S., 2017. Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and DNA damage protection of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) cultivars of North Indian region. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 11(1): 126–133. 10.1007/s11694-016-9379-z
Serin, S. and Sayar, S., 2017. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product. Food Science and Technollogy. 37: 25–32. 10.1590/1678-457x.05516
Shafi, M., Baba, W.N., Masoodi, F.A., Bazaz, R., 2016. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 53(12): 4278–4288. 10.1007/s13197-016-2423-5
Sharma, P. and Gujral, H.S., 2014. Cookie making behavior of wheat–barley flour blends and effects on antioxidant properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 55(1): 301–307. 10.1016/j.lwt.2013.08.019
Sun, C., Zhao, C., Guven, E.C., Paoli, P., Simal-Gandara, J., Ramkumar, K.M., Wang, S., Buleu, F., Pah, A. and Turi, V., 2020. Dietary polyphenols as antidiabetic agents: advances and opportunities. Food Frontiers. 1: 18–44. 10.1002/fft2.15
Wojtunik-Kulesza, K., Oniszczuk, A., Oniszczuk, T., Combrzyński, M., Nowakowska, D. and Matwijczuk, A., 2020. Influence of in vitro digestion on composition, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of food polyphenols–a non-systematic review. Nutrients. 12: 1401. 10.3390/nu12051401
Zaky, A.A., Asiamah, E., El-Faham, S., Ashour, M. and Sharaf, A., 2020. Utilization of grape pomace extract as a source of natural antioxidant in biscuits. Eurpean Academic Research. 8: 108–126