PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SEVERAL FIG (FICUS CARICA L.) ECOTYPES

Main Article Content

F. ALJANE
M.H. NEILY
A. MSADDAK

Keywords

anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, ecotypes, Ficus carica, flavonoids, fruits, polyphenols

Abstract

In this study, phenolics and reducing sugar` compositions of fig fruits (27 Tunisian ecotypes) were analyzed. In addition, the antioxidant activity was determined by two methods; the ABTS and the DPPH assays. Phytochemical composition of the 27 fig ecotypes was found to be very diverse, as the total polyphenols varied from 51.50 (‘Bouholi’) to 100.23 (‘Nasri’) mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g fresh weight. Total flavonoids also varied from 0.33 (‘Bayoudhi1’) to 17.59 (‘Soltani Ahmar’) mg quercetin equivalent/100 g fresh weight, and total anthocyanins extended from 1.61 (‘Besbessi’) to 11.67 (‘Zidi2’) mg/100 g fresh weight. Additionally, DPPH % inhibition ranged from 11.37 (‘Besbessi’) to 64.73 % (‘Bouharrag’) and ABTS from 38.50 (Sawoudi5) to 676.13 (‘Nemri’). The ecotypes ‘Zergui’ and ‘Nasri’ had the highest contents of glucose (5.68 and 4.83 g/ 100 g FW, respectively) and fructose (5.43 and 4.69 g/ 100 g FW, respectively). The results also showed that fig fruits are a good and valuable source of natural antioxidants that can be used in food and medical sectors.

Abstract 176 | pdf Downloads 117

References

Abidi W., Jiménez S., Moreno M.A. and Gogorcena Y. 2011. Evaluation of antioxidant compounds and total sugar content in a nectarine (Prunuspersica L. Batsch) progeny. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12:6919-6935.

Adiletta G., Zampella L., Coletta C. and Petriccione M. 2019. Chitosan coating to preserve the qualitative traits and improve antioxidant system in fresh figs (Ficus carica L.). Agric. (9) 84:1-12.

Aljane F. and Ferchichi A. 2009. Post-harvest chemical properties and mineral contents of some fig (Ficus carica L.) ecotypes in Tunisia. J. Food Agric. Environ. 7 (2):209-212.

Aljane F. and Ferchichi A. 2010. Assessment of genetic diversity of Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) ecotypes using morphological and chemical characters. Acta Bot. Gallica 157 (1):171-182.

Aljane F. and Sdiri N. 2014. Phytochemical characteristics as affected by fruit skin color of some fig (Ficus carica L.) ecotypes from southeastern Tunisia. Revuedes Régions Arides 34:5-17.

Aljane F. 2016. Analysis of genetic diversity in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) germplasm bank revealed by RAPD markers and morphological characters. Eur. J. Sci. Res.142 (2):172-192.

Aljane F., Essid A. and Nahdi S. 2018. Improvement of fig (Ficus carica L.) by conventional breeding and biotechnology. In “Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies: Fruits”. J. Al-Khayri, S. Jain and D. Johnson (Ed), p. 343. Springer International Publishing AG, Cham.

BachirBey M., Louaileche H. and Zemouri S. 2013. Optimization of phenolic compound recovery and antioxidant activity of light and dark dried fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 22 (6):1613-1619.

BachirBey M. and Louaileche H. 2015. A comparative study of phytochemical profile and in vitro antioxidant activities of dark and light dried fig (Ficus carica L.) varieties. J. Phytopharmacol. 4 (1):41-48.

Caliskan O. and Polat A.A. 2011. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of selected fig (Ficus carica L.) ecotypes from the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Sci. Hortic.128:473-478.

Caliskan O. and Polat A.A. 2012. Effects of genotype and harvest year on phytochemical and fruit quality properties of Turkish fig genotypes. Span. J. Agri. Res. 10 (4):1048-1058.

Capanoglu E. 2014. Investigating the antioxidant potential of Turkish dried fruits. Int. J. Food Prop. 17:690-702.

Chatti K., Salhi-Hannachi A., Mars M., Marrakchi M. and Trifi M. 2004. Analyse de la diversité des écotypes tunisiens de figuier (Ficus carica L.) par les caractères morphologiques. Fruits 59:49-61.

Cheng G.W. and Breen P.J. 1991. Activity of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) and concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolics in developing strawberry fruits. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 116:865-869.

Debib A. Tir-Touil A., Mothana R.A., Meddah B. and Sonnet P. 2014. Phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two fruit varieties of Algerian Ficus carica L. J. Food Biochem. 3:207-215.

Del Caro A. and Piga A. 2008. Polyphenol composition of peel and pulp of two Italian fresh fig fruits cultivars (Ficus carica L.). Europ. Food Res. Technol. 26:715-719.

Duenas M., Perez-Alonso J.J., Santos-Buelga C. and Escribano-Bailon T. 2008. Anthocyanin composition in fg (Ficus carica L.). J. Food Compos. Anal. 21:107-115.

Ercisli S., Tosun M., Karlidag H., Dzubur A., Hadziabulic S. and Aliman Y. 2012. Color and antioxidant characteristics of some fresh fg (Ficus carica L.) genotypes from Northeastern Turkey. Plant FoodsHum. Nutr. 67:271-276.

FAOSTAT. 2015. Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (2015 onwards). Crops: Visualize data. URL. http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E.

Gao L. and Mazza G. 1995. Characterization quantition and distribution of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in sweet cherries. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:343-346.

Gundogdu M, Muradoglua F.,GaziogluSensoyb R.I. and Yilamz H. 2011. Determination of fruit chemical properties of Morusnigra L., Morusalba L. and MorusrubraL. by HPLC. Sci. Hortic 132:37-41.

Karadeniz F., Burdurlu H.S., Koca N. and Soyer Y. 2005. Antioxidant activity of selected fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. Turk. J. Agric. For 29:297-303.

Mancinelli A. Yang C. and Lindquist P. 1975. Photocontrol of anthocyanin synthesis. III. The action of streptomycin on the synthesis of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. Plant Physiol. 55:251-7.

Mars M., Marrakchi M. and Chebli T. 1998. Multivariate analysis of Fig (Ficus carica L.) germaplasm in southern Tunisia. ActaHortic. 480:75-81.

Mars M. 2003. Fig (Ficus carica L.) Genetic Ressources and Breeding. ActaHortic. 605:19-26.

Mars M., Chatti K., Saddoud O., Salhi-Hannachi A., Trifi M. and Marrakchi M. 2008. Fig cultivation and genetic resources in Tunisia. An overview. ActaHortic. 798: 27-32.

Melgarejo P., Hernandez F., Martfnez J.J. and Salazar D.M. 2003. Organic acids and sugars from first and second crop fig juices. ActaHortic. 605:237-239.

Ouchemoukh S., Hachoud S., Boudraham H., Mokrani A. and Louaileche H. 2012. Antioxidant activities of some dried fruits consumed in Algeria. LWT-Food. Sci. Technol. 49 (2):329-332.

Ozgen M., SerçeS. and Kaya C. 2009. Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of anthocyanin-rich Morusnigra and Morusrubrafruits, Sci. Hortic. 119:275-279.

Piga A., Del Caro A., Milella G., Pinna I. and Vacca V. 2008. HPLC analysis of polyphenols in peel and pulp of fresh figs. ActaHortic. 798:301-306.

R Core Team. 2019. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.

Rebai O., Belkhir M., AmriM. and Fattouch S. 2012. Antioxidant activity and phenolic extracts of black (Morusnigra L.) and White (Morusalba L.) mulberry fruits. Biologia Tunisie 7:26-29.

Setser C.S. 1993. Sensory properties. In: “Encyclopaedia of Food Science”. R. Macrae, R.K. Robinson and M.J. Sadler (Ed.), p. 691. Food Technology and Nutrition Academic Press, London.

Slinkard K. and Singleton V.L. 1977. Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. Am. J. Enol. Viticult. 28:49-55.

Solomon A., Golubowicz S., Yablowicz Z., Grossman S., Bergman M., Gottlieb, H.E., Altman A., Kerem Z. and Falaishmant M.A. 2006. Antioxidant activities and anthocyanin content of fresh fruits of common fig (Ficus carica L.). J. Agr. Food Chem. 54 (20):7717-7723.

Treutter D. 2010. Managing phenol contents in crop plants by phytochemical farming and breeding—visions and constraints Int. J. Mol. Sci. 11:807-857.

Vallejo F., Marin J.G. and Tomas-Barberan F.A. 2012. Phenolic compound content of fresh and dried figs (Ficus carica L.). Food Chem. 130:485-492.

Veberic R., Colaric M. and Stampar F. 2008. Phenolic acids and flavonoids of fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) in the northern Mediterranean region. Food Chem. 106 (1):153-157.