Main Article Content



antioxidant, antibacterial, essential oil, Rhanterium suaveolens, chemical composition


The purpose of this work is to assess the antioxidant and the antibacterial activities of essential oil from flowers of Rhanterium suaveolens Desf. and to investigate its chemical composition. The GC-MS analysis revealed the identification of a total of thirty-one compounds representing 98.4% of the total oil. Spathulenol (18.3%), carvacrol (12.1%), linalool (9.4%), a-terpineol (7.10%), a-terpinolene (6.3%) and pinocarvone (5.6%) were identified as major constituents. The tested oil exhibited weak activities in both DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing power test. However, it showed a good lipid peroxidation activity using the B-carotene/linoleic acid assay with an IC50 value of 26.20±1.01 ug/mL. In addition, the highest antibacterial effect was recorded against Staphylococcus aureus ((MIC=37.5 ug/mL). These findings show that essential oil of R. suaveolens flowers can be used as a promising source of natural food and drug preservatives.
Abstract 65 | pdf Downloads 60


Aberrane S., Djouahri A., Djerrad Z., Saka, B., Benseradj F., Aitmoussa S., Sabaou N., Baaliouamer A. and Boudarene L. 2019. Changes in essential oil composition of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss. aerial parts according to the developmental stage of growth and incidence on the biological activities. J. Essent Oil Res. 31(1):69-89.

Adams R.P. 2001. “Identification of Essential Oils Components by Gas Chromatography/Quadrupole, Mass Spectroscopy”. Allured Publishing Corp, Carol Stream, Illinois, USA.

Aggarwal K.K., Khanuja S.P.S., Ahmad A., Umar T.R.S., Gupta V.K. and Kumar S. 2002. Antimicrobial activity profiles of the two enantiomers of limonene and carvone isolated from the oils of Menthaspicita and Anethumsowa. Flav Frag J.17:59-63.

Aidi Wannes W., Mhamdi B., Sriti J., Ben Jemia M., Ouchikh O., Hamdaoui G., Kchouk M.E. and Marzouk B. 2010. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils and methanol extracts from myrtle (Myrtuscommunis var. italica L.) leaf stem and flower. Food Chem Toxicol. 48: 1362-1370.

Bagamboula C.F., Uyttendaele M. and Debevere J. 2004. Inhibitory effects of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thyme, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigellasonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbiol. 21:33-42.

Bagheri H., Abdul Manap M.Y. and Solati Z. 2014. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction and hydro-distillation. Talanta J. 21:220-228.

Bel Hadj S.F.K., Hassayoun F., Cheraif I., Khan S., Ben Jannet H., Hammami M., Aouni M. and Harzallah-Skhiri F. 2017. Chemical composition antibacterial and antifungal activities of flower head and root essential oils of Santolina chamaecyparissus L., growing wild in Tunisia. Saudi. J. Biol. Sci. 24:875-882.

Ben Salah H., Bouaziz H. and Allouche N. 2019. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Rhanteriumsuaveolens Desf. and its Antimicrobial Activity Against Foodborne Spoilage Pathogens and Mycotoxigenic Fungi. J. Essent Oil Bear. DOI:

Bida M.R., Dominguez J., Jones Miguel D., Guerrero A. and Pagano T. 2019. Essential oil compounds from the leaf of Eugenia samanensis Alain (Myrtaceae), a species endemic to the Samaná Peninsula, Dominican Republic. J. Essent Oil Res. 31(2):154-159.

Boukhatem M.N., Amine F.M., Kameli A., Saidi F., Walid K. and Mohamed S.B. 2014. Quality assessment of the essential oil from Eucalyptus globulus Labill of Blida (Algeria) origin. Int Lett Chem Phys Astron. 17:303-315.

Bozin B., Mimica-Dukic N., Simin N. and Anackov G. 2006. Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some Lamiaceae spices and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. J. Food Chem Agric. 54:1822-1828.

Caillet S. and Lacroix S.M. 2007. «Les huiles essentielles : leurs propriétés antimicrobiennes et leurs applications potentielles en alimentaire». INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, RESALA, pp.1-8.

Chaieb M. and Boukhris M. 1998. (Ed.)."Flore succincte et illustrée des zones arides et sahariennes de Tunisie". Edition CLE. p. 133-134. Tunis

Chemsa A.E., Erol E., Ozturk M., Zellagui A., Ozgurd C., Gherraf N. and Duru M.E. 2016. Chemical constituents of essential oil of endemic Rhanterium suaveolens Desf. growing in Algerian Sahara with antibiofilm, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. Nat Prod Res.18:2120-2124.

Dapkevicius A., Venskutonis R., Van Beek T.A. and Linssen P.H. 1998. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained by different isolation procedures from some aromatic herbs grown in Lithuania. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:140-146.

De Martino L., Nazzaro F., Mancini E. and De Feo V. (Ed.). 2015. Essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants. In: Preedy VR, Watson RR, editors. “The Mediterranean diet: an evidence-based approach”. London: Academic Press.

Delaquis P.J., Stanich K., Girard B. and Mazza G. 2002. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils. Int.J. Microbiol.74:101-9.

Dhaouadi K., Belkhir M., Akinocho I., Raboudi F., Pamies D., Barrajón E., Estevan C. and Fattouch S. 2014. Sucrose supplementation during traditional carob syrup processing affected its chemical characteristics and biological activities. LWT-Food.Sci. Technol. 57:1-8.

Dhaouadi K., Meliti W., Dallali S., Belkhir M., Ouerghemmi S., Sebei H. and Fattouch S. 2015. Commercial Lawsonia inermis L. dried leaves and processed powder: Phytochemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and allelopathic activities. Ind Crops Prod. 77: 544-552.

Dzamic A.M., Sokovic M.D., Novakovic M., Jadraninc M., Ristic M.S., Tesevic V. and Marina P.D. 2013. Composition, antifungal and antioxidant properties of Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. pilifer (Pant.) Murb. Essential oil and deodorized extracts. Ind Crops Prod. 51:401-407.

Fattouch S., Caboni P., Coroneo V., Tuberoso C.I.G., Angioni A., Dessi S., Marzouki N. and Cabras P. 2007. Antimicrobial activity of Tunisian quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) pulp and peel polyphenolic extracts. J. Agric Food Chem. 55:963-969.

Girardi N.S., Passone M.A., García D., Nesci A. and Etcheverry M. 2018. Microencapsulation of Peumus boldus essential oil and its impact on peanut seed quality preservation. Ind Crop Prod. 114:108-114.

Gulluce M., Sahin F., Sokmen M., Ozer H., Daferera D., Sokmen A., Polissiou M., Adiguzel A. and Ozkan H. 2007. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oils and methanol extract from Mentha longifolia L. ssp. Longifolia. Food Chem. 103(4):1449-1456.

Gutierrez J., Barry-Ryan C. and Bourke P. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils using food model media: efficacy, synergistic potential and interaction with food components. Food Microbiol. 26:142-150.

Hamia C., Gourine N., Boussoussa H., Saidi M., Gaydou E.M. and Yousfi M. 2013. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oil and fatty acids of the flowers of Rhanterium adpressum. Nat Prod Commun. 8:1171-1174.

Harkat-Madouri L., Boudria A., Madani K., Si Said Z.B.O., Rigou P., Grenier D., Allalou H., Remini H., Adjaoud A. and Boulekbache-Makhlouf L. 2015. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Eucalyptus globulus from Algeria. Ind Crops Prod. 78:148-153

Joulain D., Knig W.A. and Hochmuth D.H. 2001. “Terpenoids and related constituents of essential oils”. Library of Mass Finder, Hamburg.

Khorshidiana N., Yousefi M., Khanniri E. and Mortazavian A.M. 2018. Potential application of essential oils as antimicrobial preservatives in cheese. Innov Food Sci. Emerg Technol. 45:62-72

Magiatis P., Skaltsounis A.L., Chinou I. and Haroutounian S.A. 2002. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of three Greek Achillea species. Z Naturforsch. 57:287-290.

Quezel P. and Santa S. (Ed.). 1963. “Nouvelle Flore de l’Algérie et des Régions Désertiques Méridionales“. Vol 2, p.948. Editions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

Russell N.J. and Gould G.W. (Ed.). 2003. “Food Preservatives”. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 18-21. New York.

Salem N., Kefi S., Tabben O., Ayed A., Jallouli S., Feres N., Hammami M., Khammassi S., Hriguaa I., Nefisi S., Sghaier A., Limam F. and Elkahoui S. 2018. Variation in chemical composition of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil under phenological stages and evidence synergism with antimicrobial standards. Ind Crops Prod. 124:115-125

Shan B., Cai Y.Z. and Brooks J.D. 2007. The in vitro antibacterial activity of dietary spices and medicinal herbs extracts. Int J. Microbiol. 117:112-119.

Siddique S., Parveen Z., Bareen F. and Mazhar S. 2017. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from leaves of three Melaleuca species of Pakistani flora. Arab J. Chem. DOI:

Singh H.P., Kaur S., Negi K., Kumari S., Saini V., Batish D.R. and Kohli K.R. 2012. Assessment of in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora (lemon-scented Eucalypt; Myrtaceae) and its major constituents. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 48: 237-241.

Tuberoso C.I.G., Kowalczyk A., Sarritzu E. and Cabras P. 2007. Determination of antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in commercial oil seeds for food use. Food Chem. 103:1494-1501.

Ultee A., Slump R.A., Steging G. and Smid J. 2000. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice. J. Food Prot. 63:620-624.