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antioxidant, kamut (Khorasan wheat), muffin, physical properties


The effects of kamut flour substitution levels  (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%) on muffin properties were investigated. As kamut flour level increased muffins showed lower height and volume and the L value decreased. The crumb hardness increased with increasing kamut level, and the control showed the lowest value in elasticity, chewiness, and brittleness. The increment of kamut flour level resulted the total flavonoid and polyphenol contents, reducing power, and ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. During storage, the avrami exponent decreased between the control to the sample added with 75% kamut. The crumb air cell number decreased, but the area increased with kamut flour level increment. In sensory evaluation, the samples with kamut level 25% and 50% were acceptable. Therefore, muffins with an appropriate level of kamut flour improve the nutritional profile, and quality of baking products.

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