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The co-cultured Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii JK08, and Pichia anomala JK04 were used as a leavening agent. The leavening ability, structural crumb features, texture profile, crumb aroma, and sensory properties of bread were evaluated. The leavening ability for the co-cultures tested was lower than for S. cerevisiae alone. Leavening with co-cultures produced bread crust and crumb that were slightly yellow and bright. Generally, co-cultured bread produced a larger diversity and higher abundance of volatile organic compounds. Superior colour properties, favorable aroma, and decent textural and structural features resulted in higher sensorial ratings for co-cultured bread. We suggest that the use of co-cultures as leavening agents improved bread quality.
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