DRYING KINETICS, HEATING UNIFORMITY AND QUALITY CHANGES DURING THE MICROWAVE VACUUM DRYING OF ARTICHOKES (CYNARA SCOLYMUS L.)

Main Article Content

Ç. MUŞTU
İ. EREN

Keywords

artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.), Microwave Vacuum Drying, Heating Uniformity, shrinkage, rehydration, Browning Index

Abstract

In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of process parameters such as the microwave power (450-800 W), system pressure (12.40–31.20 kPa) and drying time (0-25min) on the drying kinetics, quality characteristics and heating uniformity indices during the microwave vacuum (MV) drying of artichokes. The microwave power was found to be more influential than the system pressure, and variations resulted in different drying characteristics. The effective diffusion coefficients were found to range from 2.279×10-6-3.454×10-6 m2/s and 3.600×10- -6.297×10-m2/s for the first and second falling rate periods, respectively. Reducing microwave power and system pressure resulted in higher uniformity in temperature distributions. However, the average temperatures deviated slightly from the targeted drying temperatures at high microwave power. The highest shrinkage coefficient (0.3705±0.0233) and rehydration ratio (3.82±0.091) values were obtained at 800 W and 12.4 kPa. MV drying preserved the fresh colour characteristics of artichokes, and it could be used as an alternative to conventional drying.
Abstract 215 | pdf Downloads 216

References

Abu-Reidah, I. M., Arraez-Roman, D., Segura-Carretero, A. and Fernandez-Gutierrez, A.2013. Extensive characterisation of bioactive phenolic constituents from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. Food Chem.141(3):2269-2277.

Ben Salem, M., Affes, H., Athmouni, K., Ksouda, K., Dhouibi, R., Sahnoun, Z., Hammami, S. and Zeghal, K. M.2017. Chemicals Compositions, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cynara scolymus Leaves Extracts, and Analysis of Major Bioactive Polyphenols by HPLC. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2017:4951937.

Chauhan, A. K. S. and Srivastava, A. K. 2009. Optimizing Drying Conditions for Vacuum-Assisted Microwave Drying of Green Peas (Pisum sativum L.). Drying Technology, 27(6):761-769.

Chen, J., Pitchai, K., Jones, D. and Subbiah, J. 2015. Effect of decoupling electromagnetics from heat transfer analysis on prediction accuracy and computation time in modeling microwave heating of frozen and fresh mashed potato. Journal of Food Engineering, 144:45-57.

Clary, C. D., Mejia-Meza, E., Wang, S. and Petrucci, V. E. 2007. Improving grape quality using microwave vacuum drying associated with temperature control. J Food Sci, 72(1): E023-028.

Crank, J. 1975. The Mathematics of Diffusion, Second Edition ed., UK, Oxford University Press.

Cui, Z.-W., Xu, S.-Y. and Sun, D.-W. 2004. Microwave–vacuum drying kinetics of carrot slices. Journal of Food Engineering, 65(2):157-164.

Cui, Z.-W., Xu, S.-Y., Sun, D.-W. and Chen, W. 2005. Temperature Changes during Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Sliced Carrots. Drying Technology, 23(5):1057-1074.

Dogan, S., Turan, Y., Ertürk, H. and Arslan, O. 2005. Characterization and Purification of Polyphenol Oxidase from Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(3): 76-785.

Dong, W., Cheng, K., Hu, R., Chu, Z., Zhao, J. and Long, Y. 2018. Effect of Microwave Vacuum Drying on the Drying Characteristics, Color, Microstructure, and Antioxidant Activity of Green Coffee Beans. Molecules, 23(5).

Drouzas, A. E., Tsami, E. and Saravacos, G. D.1999. Microwave/vacuum drying of model fruit gels. Journal of Food Engineering, 39:117-122.

Eren, I., Yildiz-Turp, G., Kaymak-Ertekin, F. and Serdaroglu, M. 2008. The Effect of External Mass Transfer Resistance during Drying of Fermented Sausage. Drying Technology, 26(12):1543-1551.

Feng, H., Yin, Y. and Tang, J. 2012. Microwave Drying of Food and Agricultural Materials: Basics and Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling. Food Engineering Reviews, 4(2):89-106.

Fratianni, F., Pepe, R. and Nazzaro, F. 2014. Polyphenol Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Quorum Quenching Activity of the “Carciofo di Montoro” (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) Global Artichoke of the Campania Region, Southern Italy. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 05(21): 2053-2062.

Geankoplis, C. J. 2003. Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles, 4th ed., New Jersey, Prentice-Hall International Inc.

Giri, S. K. and Prasad, S. 2006. Modeling Shrinkage and Density Changes During Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Button Mushroom. International Journal of Food Properties, 9(3):409-419.

Giri, S. K. and Prasad, S. 2007. Optimization of Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Button Mushrooms Using Response-Surface Methodology. Drying Technology, 25(5):901-911.

Guida, V., Ferrari, G., Pataro, G., Chambery, A., Di Maro, A. and Parente, A. 2013. The effects of ohmic and conventional blanching on the nutritional, bioactive compounds and quality parameters of artichoke heads. LWT -Food Science and Technology, 53(2):569-579.

Hawlader, M. N. A., Perera, C. O. and Tian, M. 2006. Properties of modified atmosphere heat pump dried foods. Journal of Food Engineering, 74(3):392-401.

Jaiswal, V., Dermarderosian, A. and Porter, J. R. 2010. Anthocyanins and polyphenol oxidase from dried arils of pomegranate (Punicagranatum L.). Food Chemistry, 118(1):11-16.

Jaya, S. and Durance, T. D. 2007. Effect of Microwave Energy on Vacuum Drying Kinetics of Alginate-Starch Gel. Drying Technology, 25(12):2005-2009.

Kiranoudis, C. T., Tsami, E. and Maroulis, Z. B.1997. Microwave Vacuum Drying Kinetics of Some Fruits. Drying Technology, 15(10):2421-2440.

Lattanzio, V., Kroon, P. A., Linsalata, V. and Cardinali, A. 2009. Globe artichoke: A functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. Journal of Functional Foods, 1(2):131-144.

Lattanzio, V. and Linsalata, V.1989. The Beneficial Effect of Citric and Ascorbic Acid on the Phenolic Browning Reaction in Stored Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) Heads Food Chemistry, 33:93-106.

Law, C. L., Tasirin, S. M. and Wan Daud, W. R. 2003. A New Variable Diffusion Drying Model for the Second Falling Rate Period of Paddy Dried in a Rapid Bin Dryer. Drying Technology, 21(9):1699-1718.

Leusink, G. J., Kitts, D. D., Yaghmaee, P. and Durance, T. 2010. Retention of antioxidant capacity of vacuum microwave dried cranberry. J Food Sci, 75(3): C311-316.

Lombardo, S., Pandino, G., Mauromicale, G., Knödler, M., Carle, R. and Schieber, A. 2010. Influence of genotype, harvest time and plant part on polyphenolic composition of globe artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus (L.) Fiori]. Food Chemistry, 119(3):1175-1181.

Lombraña, J. I., Rodríguez, R. and Ruiz, U. 2010. Microwave-drying of sliced mushroom. Analysis of temperature control and pressure. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 11(4):652-660.

Mahiuddin, M., Khan, M. I. H., Kumar, C., Rahman, M. M. and Karim, M. A. 2018. Shrinkage of Food Materials During Drying: Current Status and Challenges. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17(5):1113-1126.

Markowski, M., Bondaruk, J. and B?aszczak, W. 2009. Rehydration Behavior of Vacuum-Microwave-Dried Potato Cubes. Drying Technology, 27(2):296-305.

Maskan, M. 2001. Drying, shrinkage and rehydration characteristics of kiwifruits during hot air and microwave drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 48(2):177-182.

Meda, V., Mitra, P., Lee, J. H. and Chang, K. S. 2016. Optimization of microwave-vacuum drying processing parameters on the physical properties of dried Saskatoon berries. Open Agriculture, 1(1).

Michalska, A., Wojdylo, A., Lech, K., Lysiak, G. P. and Figiel, A.2017. Effect of different drying techniques on physical properties, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of blackcurrant pomace powders. LWT -Food Science and Technology, 78:114-121.

Mousa, N. and Farid, M.2002. Microwave Vacuum Drying of Banana Slices. Drying Technology, 20(10):2055-2066.

Palou, E., López-Malo, A., Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Welti-Chanes, J. and Swanson, B. G.1999. Polyphenoloxidase Activity and Color of Blanched and High Hydrostatic Pressure Treated Banana. Journal of Food Science, 64(1):42-46.

Parin, H. 2004. Effect Of Pretreatment And Air Temperature On The Drying Rate, Rehydration Capacity And Color Of Artichoke. MSc Thesis. Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Pitchai, K., Birla, S. L., Subbiah, J., Jones, D. and Thippareddi, H.2012. Coupled electromagnetic and heat transfer model for microwave heating in domestic ovens. Journal of Food Engineering,112(1-2):100-111.

Rogelio, J. P., Liza, F. P., Abulencia, G. L., Soriano, J. K. T., Baldovino, R. G., Tolentino, T. a. U. and Jr., V. Y. M. 2015 An Optimized Design of a PLC-Based Controlled Microwave Vacuum Dryer for Preliminary Drying Studies on Rice Bran. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science. San Francisco, USA.

Segnini, S., Pedreschi, F. and Dejmek, P. 2004. Volume Measurement Method of Potato Chips. International Journal of Food Properties, 7(1):37-44.

Si, X., Chen, Q., Bi, J., Wu, X., Yi, J., Zhou, L. and Li, Z.2016. Comparison of different drying methods on the physical properties, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raspberry powders. J Sci Food Agric, 96(6):2055-2062.

Song, X.-J., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S. and Fan, L. 2009. Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Vacuum Microwave–Dried Potato Slices. Drying Technology, 27(9):969-974.

Sutar, P. P. and Prasad, S.2007. Modeling Microwave Vacuum Drying Kinetics and Moisture Diffusivity of Carrot Slices. Drying Technology, 25(10):1695-1702.

Tein M. Lin, T. D. D. C. H. S. 1998. Characterization of vacuum microwave, air and freeze dried carrot slices. Food Research International, 31(2).

Tsuruta, T., Tanigawa, H. and Sashi, H. 2015. Study on Shrinkage Deformation of Food in Microwave–Vacuum Drying. Drying Technology, 33(15-16):1830-1836.

Wojdylo, A., Figiel, A., Lech, K., Nowicka, P. and Oszmianski, J. 2013. Effect of Convective and Vacuum–Microwave Drying on the Bioactive Compounds, Color, and Antioxidant Capacity of Sour Cherries. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7(3):829-841.

Wray, D. and Ramaswamy, H. S. 2015. Novel Concepts in Microwave Drying of Foods. Drying Technology, 33(7):769-783.

Zielinska, M., Zapotoczny, P., Alves-Filho, O., Eikevik, T. M. and Blaszczak, W. 2013. A multi-stage combined heat pump and microwave vacuum drying of green peas. Journal of Food Engineering, 115(3):347-356.